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2.1 The Scientists\' Mind answer # 1-3 (pg. 28)

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Book work for Ch. 2 The Nature of Science 2.1 The Scientists\' Mind answer # 1-3 (pg. 28) 2.2 Scientific Methods of Inquiry answer # 1-4 (pg. 33) 2.3 Scientists\' Tools answer # 1, 3 (pg. 37) Chapter review questions answer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41).

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Book work for Ch. 2 The Nature of Science2.1 The Scientists\' Mindanswer # 1-3 (pg. 28)2.2 Scientific Methods of Inquiryanswer # 1-4 (pg. 33)2.3 Scientists\' Toolsanswer # 1, 3 (pg. 37)Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)

2 1 the scientists mind answer 1 3 pg 28
2.1 The Scientists\' Mindanswer # 1-3 (pg. 28)
  • Describe the unique characteristics of Carl Sagan, Enriqueta Barrera, and Evan Forde that assisted them in their scientific careers.
    • Ex. curious, interested in nature, keen observer…
  • Name two characteristics of scientific thinking that all scientists share.
    • Ex. Inquisitive, observant, creative, skeptical, cooperative
  • Explain why it is important for scientists to be skeptical.
    • Scientists need to question ideas and “prove” or “disprove” them in order to understand the natural world.
2 2 scientific methods of inquiry answer 1 4 pg 33
2.2 Scientific Methods of Inquiryanswer # 1-4 (pg. 33)
  • What is a hypothesis? What steps are necessary before a hypothesis can be formulated?
    • A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation. Making observations and asking questions are necessary steps before a hypothesis can be formulated.
  • What is peer review? What is its role in scientific inquiry?
    • During peer review, a scientist’s documentation of his or her work is reviewed by experts in the field prior to publication. It ensures that proper scientific methods have been used & that the work is ready to be considered and texted by other scientists.
2 2 scientific methods of inquiry answer 1 4 pg 331
2.2 Scientific Methods of Inquiryanswer # 1-4 (pg. 33)
  • Explain the value of testing and retesting ideas scientifically.
    • By testing & retesting ideas, scientists gather evidence to determine whether an idea is scientifically valid.
  • How have you applied the method of scientific inquiry—formulating a question, gathering data, and forming a hypothesis—in your own life??
    • Answers will vary but should include the processes of formulating a question, gathering data, and forming hypotheses.
2 3 scientists tools answer 1 3 pg 37
2.3 Scientists\' Toolsanswer # 1, 3 (pg. 37)
  • Describe how tools help scientists in their work.
    • Answers will vary.
    • Ex. Tools allow scientists access to more information, extend the senses, etc.
  • How are computers and satellites changing the nature of science?
      • Computers allow scientists to analyze larger amounts of data in a fraction of the time it took in the past. Satellites provide new views of Earth—both its surface & the ocean floor.
chapter review questions answer 1 2 5 9 16 19 21 23 24 pgs 40 41
Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)
  • theory, law
    • Theory: an explanation based on available information; may be changed as new info is found
    • Law: a generalization to which no exception has been found; does not change

2. hypothesis, theory

    • Hypothesis: a temporary explanation for an observation or phenomenon
    • Theory: a carefully tested hypothesis that seems to be the best explanation for the phenomenon.

5. evidence, inquiry

    • Inquiry: the process of asking questions
    • Evidence: information that can be measured & tested to verify a prediction

6. hypothesis, question

    • Hypothesis: a temporary answer to a question
    • Question: seeks an answer
chapter review questions answer 1 2 5 9 16 19 21 23 24 pgs 40 411
Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)

7. What are some qualities that scientists share?

  • strong powers of observation, logical, sense of wonder, creativity, skepticism

8. How do scientists support their hypotheses?

  • by gathering, analyzing, & interpreting data

9. Describe the way in which a scientist might approach a question

  • Scientists are methodical in their approach & inventive in figuring out ways to get information.

16. Think about Evan Forde’s 7th grade experience, when his science teacher asked him to write down observations about a candle. Take a common object and challenge yourself: How many observations about the object can you make? Remember that details are the key.

  • Answers will vary.
chapter review questions answer 1 2 5 9 16 19 21 23 24 pgs 40 412
Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)

7. What are some qualities that scientists share?

8. How do scientists support their hypotheses?

9. Describe the way in which a scientist might approach a question.

16. Think about Evan Forde’s seventh grade experience, when his science teacher asked him to write down observations about a candle. Take a common object and challenge yourself: How many observations about the object can you make? Remember that details are the key.

chapter review questions answer 1 2 5 9 16 19 21 23 24 pgs 40 413
Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)

19. How many times was the water level tested in Study 1? in Study 2?

  • Study 1: 4 times; Study 2: 9 times

20. During Study 1, by how much did the water level decline between the first measurement and the final measurement?

  • About 40 feet

21. During Study 2, by how much did the water level decline between the first measurement and the final measurement?

  • About 40 feet
chapter review questions answer 1 2 5 9 16 19 21 23 24 pgs 40 414
Chapter review questionsanswer # 1, 2, 5-9, 16, 19-21, 23, 24 (pgs. 40-41)

23. What must have taken place between the measurement taken near March 1, 1995, and the one taken September 1, 1995?

  • There must have been a lot of rain.

24. If a third study were done, what do you think a graph made from its data would look like? Explain your thinking.

  • If it covered the same months, it would probably look the same as the other two studies. There are probably periods of rainy months & dry months in each season of the year. These would be roughly the same from year to year.
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