Surveys. What is a Survey?. Get lots of structured information from lots of people. Simplify and standardize data collection. Use statistics to make predictions. Find out about things that can not be observed. Such as Thoughts, Emotions, Opinions, Intentions, Attitudes. Why Survey?.
What is a Survey?
Get lots of structured information from lots of people.
Simplify and standardize data collection.
Use statistics to make predictions.
Find out about things that can not be observed. Such as Thoughts, Emotions, Opinions, Intentions, Attitudes
the process consumers go through before taking some action.
Decision making process
why people do or do not do something.
Door-to-Door (in-home), Mall-Intercept, Purchase-Intercept, Executive (office)
Direct Computer Interviewing
Interactive voice response technology-Automated Telephone
A Classification of Survey Methods
FACE TO FACE
DIRECT COMPUTER INTERVIEW
Can arouse and keep interest
Can build rapport and enlist cooperation
Ask complex questions
Can use visual and other aids
High degree of flexibility
Probe for more complete answers
Do not need an explicit or current list of households or individuals
Bias of Interviewer
Cost Per Completed Interview Is High.
High refusal rate
A trained staff of interviewers that is geographically near the sample is needed.
The total data collection period is likely to be longer than for most procedures.
High selection error – non-representative sample
Selecting telephone numbers
Pre specified list
Random dialing procedure
Random digit dialing
Systematic random digit dialing (SRDD)
When to call
What are the Important Aspects of Telephone Interviewing?
Central location, under supervision, at own hours
More interviews can be conducted in a given time
Travelling time is saved
More hours of the day are productive
Repeated call backs at lower cost
Lower administrative costs/ Lower cost per completed interview
Less sample bias
Better access to certain populations
Shorter data collection periods.
Inability to employ visual aids or complex tasks
Can't be longer than 5-10 min. or they get boring
Amount of data that can be collected is relatively less
A capable interviewer essential
Sample bias -- Not all people have phones, or are not listed
Nonresponse associated with RDD sampling is higher than with interviews
Possibly less appropriate for personal or sensitive questions if no prior contact
National Do Not Call List 1-866-580-DNCL (866-580-3625)
Limitations and Disadvantages:
Call at a convenient time (Weekdays 7-9 PM, Sunday afternoon)
Have a nice Pleasant introduction
Emphasize you are not selling anything.
State how long it will take.
Keep the survey short
Self-Administered Types of Survey Research
Direct Mail Survey
Questionnaire is distributed to and returned from respondents via the postal service.
Respondent Reads Survey Questions and Records Answers Without Assistance
Mail Panel Survey
Selected group of individuals that have made an advance agreement to participate in a series of direct mail surveys.
Drop Off Survey
Questionnaires are left with respondent to be completed at a later time and returned to the researcher.
Requires a broad identification of the individuals to be sampled before data collection begins
Ad Hoc Mail Surveys (cold):
Questionnaires for a particular project sent to selected names and addresses with no prior contact by the researcher.
Mail Panels (warm):
Pre-contacted and screened participants who are periodically sent questionnaires.
A mail panel is a type of longitudinal study. A longitudinal study in one in which the same respondents are re-sampled over time.
Type of Return Envelope
Method of Addressing
The Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color, Format Etc
Method of Notification
Incentive to Be Given
Some Decisions That Need to Be Taken
Relatively low cost
Reliable answers as no inhibiting intermediary
Survey answered at respondents discretion
Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities.
Provides access to widely dispersed samples.
Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers, look up records, or consult others.
No control over whom the respondent consults before answering the questions
The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlled
The speed of the response can't be monitored
No control on the order in which the questions are exposed or answered
Open questions usually are not useful.
Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents.
The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions objectives, or the quality of answers provided.
High non-response rate
The respondent may not clearly understand the question and no opportunity to clarify
No long questionnaires
Need for good up-to date mailing list
Response rate is generally poor
Number of problems such as obsolescence, omissions, duplications, etc
Ineffective as a way of enlisting cooperation.
Perceived amount of work required, and the length of the questionnaire
Intrinsic interest in the topic
Characteristics of the sample
Credibility of the sponsoring organization
Level of induced motivation
Factors Affecting the Response Rate
Tactics Employed to Increase Mail Survey Response Rate
• Personally signed cover letter.
Tactics Employed to Increase Mail Survey Response Rate
• Entry into drawing for prize.
• Emotional appeals.
• Affiliation with institutions or reputed organizations.
• Multiple mailings of the questionnaire.
• Bids for sympathy.
• Offer to share information from the survey.
To realize the importance of the marketing research interviewer.
Almost all the actions listed for mail survey should hold for E-Mail/Internet survey with some modifications.
The questionnaire should be fairly short.
No need for advance notification
Have short, pleasant introduction
Monetary incentives not given. But sharing information would be nice.
Reminder e-mail would be useful.
Sample Criteria: Ability to reach and get responses from the desired sample (sample control)
right type of people
“adequate” sample size.
Information Criteria: Ability to get the desired information from respondents.
Need to Expose Respondents to Various Stimuli or Perform Certain Specialized Tasks e.g. Taste tests, product concept and prototype tests, etc.
Length of Questionnaire
Degree of Structure of the Questionnaire
Control social desirability
time for data collection and analysis
Criteria for Determining Choice Of Particular Survey Methods
Factors Determining the Choice of Survey Method.
Use for long, complex questionnaires where respondent is important and budgets are high.
Use when you have a mailing list, somewhat long / complex questionnaire, and budgets are low.
Use to reach a large number of people quickly and you have a short questionnaire that can be easily understood.
Use when target audience is educated, topic interesting, short questionnaire, have e-mail list, representativeness not a major issue
Personal Phone Mail Internet
Use of physical stimuli
Diversity of questions
Potential for interviewer bias
Field force control
Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods
Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods
Note: These reflect typical situations. For example, an elaborate mail survey may be
far more expensive than a short interview, but this is generally not the case.
Did you ask the right questions in the right way?
Did you ask the right people?
Did they tell you the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth?
Can they? Do they have the knowledge, opinions, attitudes, or facts required. Do they understand the questions?
Structure causes a loss of data richness.
Have the Respondents/Interviewers understood and correctly recorded the responses
Lack of control causes time and response problems.
Potential Problems with Surveys
How accurate are the results?
Random Sampling Error
statistically measured difference between the actual sampled results and the estimated true population results.
error because of chance variation
Reduce by increasing sample size
Range can be estimated with a certain level of confidence
Nonsampling Error (Systematic Error)
results from mistakes or problems in the research design or its execution
Causes data to be misleading or incomplete in some systematic way from true population parameter
If you are aware of the problem you may be able to deal with it.
Frame Error: The list from which you draw your sample is not what you think it is—some on it don’t belong and/or some who belong are not on it – sample is not representative of population (e.g. telephone directory)
Population Specification Error: incorrect definition of the universe or population from which the sample is to be selected. You left people out of the study.
Selection Error: You include or exclude people in the sample so that it is not random. Use of incomplete or improper sampling procedures or when appropriate selection procedures are not properly followed (e.g. non-probability samples such as intercept surveys)
Surrogate Information Error
Acquisition of the wrong data because wrong question was asked. – failure to define problem, e.g. New Coke
interviewer may, consciously or unconsciously, influence respondents to give untrue or inaccurate answers. – training problem
misunderstood or leading questions – questionnaire design
sloppy data input
differences betweenthe “did” vs. “did not” answer question
a failure to tell the truth, consciously or unconsciously
Your company has just launched a new brand of pancake syrup. In order to improve sales the marketing department would like to know why consumers buy the brands and sizes they do. How would you go about collecting this information?
Calgary Transit would like to conduct a ridership survey. Funds are limited but they need a relatively large sample. How would you suggest they gather the information?
Your company makes the new flip and fold device. You want to find out what consumers think about it and how much they are willing to pay. What sort of survey technique do you use and why. Who do you target in your survey
Watching what people do
The information must be observable
Helpful if the behavior is repetitive and of short duration
Approaches to observational research
What does gathering data through Observation entail
What are the advantages of observational data collection as opposed to surveys?
What are the relative disadvantages of observational data collection as opposed to surveys?
Time and flow in retail stores
People Reader: reading habits
GSR: galvanic skin response
Pupilometer: pupil dilation
Store scanners read the UPC codes on products and produce instantaneous information on sales