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专转本统一考试 大学英语( I ). Lecturer: Echo Ge. 试卷结构分析. Part I 阅读 40 分 Part II 单词与结构 40 分 Part III 完型填空 20 分 Part IV 翻译(英译中) 20 分 Part V 翻译(中译英) 15 分 Part VI 写作 15 分 _____________________________________________________

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专转本统一考试 大学英语( I )

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I

专转本统一考试大学英语(I)

Lecturer: Echo Ge


I

试卷结构分析

  • Part I 阅读40分

  • Part II单词与结构40分

  • Part III完型填空20分

  • Part IV翻译(英译中)20分

  • Part V翻译(中译英)15分

  • Part VI 写作15分

    _____________________________________________________

    150 分


I

试卷结构分析

  • 语法与词汇 Part II/Part III/Part IV/Part V95分 64%

  • 阅读 Part I40分 26%

  • 写作 Part VI15分 10%

    ______________________________________________________________

    150 分 100%


I

语法与词汇

  • 语法词汇考点筛查(P1-P10)

  • 语法考前浓缩版 (P97-P105)

  • 词汇100预测 (P13-15)


P97 p105

语法考前浓缩版(P97-P105)

  • 介词 38

  • 分词 41-45;

    47;48

  • 独立主格46

  • 从句49;51;

    53-56

  • 倍数50

  • 倒装52

  • 时态 1-3

  • 被动 2-10

  • 虚拟语气11-14

  • 情态动词16;40

  • 并列结构17;39

  • 主谓一致19-25

  • 反意疑问句26

  • 动名词27;19;30

  • 不定式28;31-37


Grammar

Grammar

  • 基本概念

  • 词性

  • 名词

  • 动词 (及物动词/不及物动词)

  • 介词 (+名词)

  • 形容词 (修饰 名词)

  • 副词 (修饰 动词/形容词)


Grammar1

Grammar

  • 基本概念

  • 句子结构

  • 不是主从句,或者无连词 (and, but, etc.), 两个独立的句子不可直接逗号隔开,放在一个句子内。

  • She is a teacher, she is beautiful.

  • 不是被动形式,及物动词后必须加宾语。

  • She fininshed.

  • have done (sth.)不出现在谓语部分,出现在分词,不定式或情态动词后,都表示“过去”的动作。

  • She must have finished her job.


Grammar2

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 一般现在时

  • 客观真理,科学事实及不受时间限制的客观存在

  • The earth moves around the sun.

  • 报刊杂志,书籍等不强调过去时间,单纯表示客观

  • 事实

  • The article describes social problem.

  • 在时间或条件状语从句中, 分句里用一般现在时代

  • 替将来时。(When; unless; if…)

  • When you come next time, I’ll show you around

  • our campus.


Grammar3

Grammar

  • 在让步状语从句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。

  • (Whether; no matter + 疑问词…)

  • Whether he drives or takes the train, he’ll be here

  • on time. (不论是否…)

  • 在 see (to it)/make sure + that从句中,用一般现在

  • 时代替将来时。

  • Make sure (that) you pick me up at five.

  • Tense(时态)


Grammar4

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 一般过去时

  • used to do sth. 与 be/get used to doing sth. 的区别

  • used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

  • get/be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事

  • He used to go to that museum.


Grammar5

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 一般将来时

  • be going to do sth. / be about to do sth. 将要……

  • be about to 比 be going to 表示更近的未来

  •  表示将来的副词(短语)一般与be going to 连用,

  • 如 tomorrow

  • They are going to hold a party tomorrow.

  • The sun is about to sink to the west.


Grammar6

Grammar

  • be to do sth. 1. 预定 2. 义务 3. 可能 4. 命令或吩咐

  • He is to return from Germany tomorrow. (预定)

  • You are to be back by 9 o’clock. (义务)

  • Suppose he comes here, when am I to tell him? (可能)

  • you are not to stay too late outside. (命令)

  • Tense(时态)


Grammar7

Grammar

  • be + V-ing 表示将来

  • come; go; leave; arrive; start; take off; retire…

  • We are leaving for New York after the performance.

  • Notice:当表示转移的动词,如come, go , arrive, leave, start…, 用一般现在时  预定的行为,已事先安排好,不容易改变

  • The plane takes off at 3 p.m.

  • Tense(时态)


Grammar8

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 完成时

  • 现在完成时

  • 1. 已完成的动作对现在造成的影响

  • 2. 未完成的动作持续到现在的情况

  • 常与for, since 连用

  • I have worked here since I graduated.

  • He has been here for about three months.


Grammar9

Grammar

  • 现在完成时

  • Tense(时态)

  • II. 可与一些表示不定时间的状语连用

  • 如: already, yet, lately, rarely; ever, just, so far,

  • until now…

  • He has just come back.

  • III. 不可与瞬间动作的动词连用。

  • 如:open, break, go, come, arrive, die, leave…

  • He has come back for three weeks.

  • He has been back for three weeks.

  • The writer has died for two years.

  • The writer has been dead for two years.


Grammar10

Grammar

  • 现在完成时

  • Tense(时态)

IV. It is/This is the first/second… time that + 从句

 现在完成时

It was/This was the first/second… time that + 从句

 过去完成时

It is the third time that I have seen the film.

That was the first time that I had visited the place.


Grammar11

Grammar

  • 现在完成时

  • Tense(时态)

V. It is/has been + 一段时间 since…

 自从……已有…

It is/has been about 7 years since I came here.

VI. have been to 与 have gone to 的区别

have been to  去过某地,已回来

have gone to  去了某地,还未回来


Grammar12

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 完成时

  • 过去完成时

  • 1. 过去的过去

  • I had just got home when it rained.

  • By the end of last year, he had taught for 30 years.


Grammar13

Grammar

  • 过去完成时

  • Tense(时态)

  • 过去完成时 + to do sth

  • 过去未曾实现的愿望,打算或意图

  • 用于动词:hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, want…

I had meant to go on Monday but have stayed on.

II. would rather/would sooner/would just as soon/might as well/would prefer + 从句

 如果表示过去的动作或情况,用过去完成时

I‘d rather you had been there yesterday.


Grammar14

Grammar

  • 过去完成时

  • Tense(时态)

  • III. no sooner …than…;

  • hardly/scarcely …when …

  • 主句 从句

  •  主句用过去完成时;从句用一般现在时

  •  no sooner, hardly/scarcely 放在句首时,主句要倒装

No sooner had he reached home than it began to rain.

He had hardly got on the train when the train started out.


Grammar15

Grammar

  • Tense(时态)

  • 完成时

  • 将来完成时

  • 1. 将来某一时刻前/某一动作前所完成的动作

  • by + 时间点;by the time + 从句

  •  主句用将来完成时:will/shall have + 过去分词

I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.

By the time you reach this page, you will have studied 142 lessons of this book.


Grammar16

Grammar

  • 完成进行时

  • Tense(时态)

  • 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别

  •  1. 完成进行时更强调动作的延续性,不间断性

  • It has rained for three days.

  • It has been raining for three days.

  •  2. 无时间状语时,现在完成时表示动作已结束,现

  • 在完成进行时表示动作仍在进行。

  • He has written an essay.

  • He has been writing an essay.


Grammar17

Grammar

  • Practice

  • They became friends again that day. Until then, they

  • ________ to each other for nearly two years.

  • A. didn’t speakB. hadn’t spoken

  • C. haven’t spokenD. haven’t been speaking

  • 2. I know a little bit about Italy as my wife and I ________ there several years ago.

  • A. am goingB. had been

  • C. wentD. have been

B C


Grammar18

Grammar

  • Practice

  • 3. —— I have got a headache.

  • —— No wonder. You _______ in front of the computer

  • too long.

  • A. workB. are working

  • C. have been workingD. worked

  • —— Did you see a man in black pass by just now?

  • —— No, sir. I _________ a newspaper.

  • A. readB. was reading

  • C. would readD. am reading

C B


Grammar19

Grammar

  • Practice

5.Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 4026 _____________ off at 18:20.

A. takesB. took

C. will be taken D. has taken

6. My brother is an actor. He ______ in several films so far.

A. appearsB. appeared

C. has appeared D. is appearing

A C


Grammar20

Grammar

  • 虚拟语气

  • 特点

  • 假设

  • 非真实(不可能或不大可能实现或发生)


Grammar21

Grammar

  • 条件状语从句中的虚拟语气

  • 虚拟语气

  • if虚拟条件句


I

Grammar

If I knew the fact now, I would tell you.

If the art dealer had had the money, he would have

bought the painting.

If you were to see Jane, what would you tell her?


I

Grammar

II. if 虚拟条件句的倒装

  • A.if条件从句中出现 were, should, had 三个助动 词(不包括行为动词)

  • B.将if省略,把 were, should, had 提到主语的前面

Were I to meet him tomorrow, I should ask him about it.

Had I had the money last year, I would have bought the house.

Should you succeed, you would become rich.


I

Grammar

III. if虚拟条件句与主句假设的时间段不一致

  • If虚拟条件句与主句有时所指的时间不一致,往往从句对过去进行假设(过去完成式),主句对现在的情况进行假设(would/should/could/might + do sth.)。

If I had studied hard in the university, I would sit in a comfortable office now.


I

Grammar

IV. 注意

  • A. 一般情况下,if条件从句与主句应同时使用陈述语气或虚拟语气

  • B.当条件句中谓语由“should + do sth.” 构成时,主句可以是虚拟语气,陈述语气或祈使语气。

If you should change your mind, let us know.

Even if/If it should get stormy, I will go.


Grammar22

Grammar

  • 名词性从句中的虚拟语气

  • 虚拟语气

  • 宾语从句,主语从句,表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气  (should) + do sth. (括号表示可以省略)

  • A.这几种名词性从句的用法是相通的,均用来表示建议,命令,要求,惊异,失望等。

  • 动词:ask, advise, determine, decide, command, insist, intend, prefer, propose, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, demand, desire…


I

Grammar

形容词:appropriate, advisable, desirable, essential, important, insistent, natural, necessary, preferable, strange, urgent, vital…

名词:resolution, pray, decision, motion, suggestion, preference, proposal, advice, recommendation, desire, demand, requirement, order, necessity, request…

They demanded that the company (should) make compensation for the loss.

It is essential that you (should) win the voter’s hearts.

The proposal that he (should) beinvited was rejected.


I

Grammar

  • suggest, insist两个单词的用法。

Suggest: 1) 表示“暗示” 的意思时,用陈述语气。

2)表示 “建议” 意思时,用虚拟语气。

Insist: 1) 表示“坚决要求” 的意思时,用虚拟语气。

2)表示“坚持认为”的意思时,用陈述语气。

He insists that she should come.

He insisted that he was innocent.


I

Grammar

  • 在expect, believe, think, suspect 后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

在其否定式或疑问式后的宾语从句中用虚拟。(常见结构为never expect/believe/think/suspect)

表示惊奇,怀疑,不满等

should + do sth. (现在或将来) should + have done sth. (过去) 【should 不可省略】

I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.

I never expected that the problem should have been solved that way.


I

Grammar

  • 在表示感情,意志等的that从句中用虚拟

A. 意思为“竟然。。。。。。” “居然。。。。。。”

B. 结构可能为“I am surprised that...; I am glad that…”

 (should) + do sth.(现在或将来) should + have done sth. (过去)

I am surprised that you (should) speak in such a way.


Grammar23

Grammar

  • 其他句型中的虚拟语气

  • wish 后的宾语从句,if only引导的感叹句,as if/as though 引导的从句中的虚拟语气的比较

  • Wish (对过去假设时,也可用would/could +have done)


I

Grammar

  • If only: (要是。。。。。。就好)

  • As if / as though


I

Grammar

II. 在would rather/would just as soon/ would sooner/ would prefer (宁愿),might as well(不妨)后面的从句中的虚拟语气。

  • 现在或将来 过去式 (did/were)

  • 过去 过去完成式 (had done)

  • Notice

  • would rather 等短语后可直接加动词。

  • 现在或将来的愿望 would rather + do sth.

  • 过去的愿望 would rather + have done sth.


I

Grammar

III. It is (high/about) time (that)… 句型中的虚拟语气。(是做。。。。。。的时候)

 should + do sth. 或者 过去式 (did/were)

IV. in case, lest, for fear that 后的从句中的虚拟语气 (以防万一)

A. lest/ for fear that  (should) + do sth.

B. in case  should + do sth.


I

Grammar

V. had hoped 后所跟的虚拟语气

A. had hoped 表示过去未实现的愿望,意思是“曾希望,原本希望”.

B. 从句中用“would + do sth.”

We had hoped that you would stay with us for some time.


I

Grammar

VI.动词 be, intend, mean, plan, want, hope等后面所跟的

虚拟语气。

A. 这些动词的不定式都有“打算,想要”的意思。

B.was/intended/meant/planned/wanted/hoped + to

have done sth.

= had been/intended/meant/planned/wanted/hoped

to do sth.

 过去想做而没有做的事

I intended to have told him the matter, but I forgot.

I had intended to tell him the matter, but I forgot.


Grammar24

Grammar

  • 情态动词

  • 分词

  • 独立主格结构


Grammar25

Grammar

  • 情态动词

  • 基本形式

  • 情态动词+do (sth.)  现在/将来

  • 情态动词+have done (sth.)  过去

  • 情态动词+be doing (sth.)  正在进行

She may have gone to Beijing yesterday.

He said that she might have gone to Beijing yesterday.


I

Grammar

  • Can/Could  否定 can’t/couldn’t

  • 1. 表示能力  会,能

  • She can play the piano.

  • 2. 表示许可  可以

  • Students can’t smoke in the classroom.

  • 3. 表示可能性  可能

  • Even experienced teachers can make mistakes.

  • 4. 表示推测  可能

  • She couldn’t make mistakes on this matter.

  • She can’t have gone to school. We have no school today.


I

Grammar

  • Can的固定搭配

  • 1. can but do sth. 只好……

  • I can but do my best.

  • 2. can’t help but do sth. 忍不住只好……

  • I can’t help but cry.

  • 3. can’t help doing sth. 忍不住做某事

  • I cannot help declining his offer.

  • 4. cannot be too + adj. 怎么……也不过分

  • You cannot be too careful when crossing the street.


I

Grammar

  • May/Might

     may not (否定句子里的动词) 可能不

    She may not know the truth.

  • 1. 表示可能,推测  可能,也许

  • It may snow tomorrow.

  • He may be having the meeting now.

  • They might have known the matter earlier.

  • 2. 表示许可  可以

  • You may use my dictionary.

  • May I borrow your bike?


I

Grammar

  • May/Might

  • 3. might 表示责备,不满。

  • You might have told the truth.

  • 4. might 的固定搭配

  • 1)may/might (just) as well do (sth.)

  • 不妨……/做……也可以

  • I might as well stay at home tonight.

  • 2) may well do (sth.) A. 或许…… B. 大可做……

  • It may well rain.

  • You may well say so.


I

Grammar

  • Must

  • 1. 表示义务  必须  否定 mustn’t 不许

  • (只能指未来)(mustn’t have done sth.×)

  • You must start at 6 tonight.

  • She must not leave her room.

  • 2. 表示比较肯定的推测  必定  否定 can’t

  • It must rain soon.

  • He must be having the meeting now.

  • It must have rained last night, for the ground is

  • wet.


I

Grammar

  • Must 和 Have to 的区别

  • must  必须 [着重于说话者的主观看法]

  • You must be back by 3 p.m.

  • have to  不得不 [着重于客观需要]

  • You have to be back by 3 p.m.


I

Grammar

  • Need 和 Dare

  • 既可做情态动词,也可做实义动词。

  • needn’t have done (sth.)

  • I needn’t have got up so early.


I

Grammar

  • Need 和 Dare(情态动词/实义动词用法区别)

  • 肯定句 (need)

  • She need have a rest.

  • She needs to have a rest.

  • 否定句 (need)

  • She need not have a rest.

  • She doesn’t need to have a rest.

  • 疑问句 (need)

  • Need she have a rest?

  • Does she need to have a rest?


I

Grammar

  • Need 和 Dare(情态动词/实义动词用法区别)

  • 肯定句 (dare)

  • She dare touch the snake.

  • She dares to touch the snake.

  • 否定句 (dare)

  • She dare not touch the snake.

  • She doesn’t dare (to) touch the snake.

  • 疑问句 (dare)

  • Dare she touch the snake?

  • Does she dare (to) touch the snake?


I

Grammar

  • Will/Would

  • 无论如何总要……

  • My Children will not listen to me.

  • The manager would have his own way.

  • would  过去的习惯,习性,倾向等

  • When I was a child, I would go skiing.


I

Grammar

  • Would 和 Used to 的区别

  • 1. would  回忆往事的心情

  • used to  过去与现在的对比

  • 2. would  过去经常重复的习惯动作

  • used to  较远,目前不复存在的习惯

  • Every morning she would teach us English.

  • My brother used to be a worker, but now he is a college teacher.


I

Grammar

  • Would 和 Used to 的区别

  • would + 动作 动词

  • used to + 动作动词/状态动词

  • There used to be a temple there.

  • He would spend all he earned on books.


I

Grammar

  • Shall

  • A. 第一人称/第三人称

  • B. 疑问句  征求允诺

  • Shall we go to the concert tonight?

  • Shall he come at once?

  • A. 第二人称/第三人称

  • B. 陈述句  给 对方 义务,命令,许诺

  • You shall do as you see me do. (义务)

  • You shall leave here at once. (命令)

  • He shall be paid. (许诺)


I

Grammar

  • Should/Ought to  应该……

  • should/ought to have done (sth.)

  • 原本应该做……却没做……

  • He ought to have worked harder.

  • shouldn’t/ought not to have done (sth.)

  • 原本不该做……却做……

  • He shouldn’t have said such a thing.


I

Grammar

  • Practice

  • My English-Chinese dictionary has disappeared. Who ______ have taken it?

  • a. should b. must c. could d. would

  • 2. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I _______ so much fried chicken just now.

  • a. shouldn’t eat b. mustn’t have eaten

  • c. shouldn’t have eatend. mustn’t eat

C C


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Grammar

3. When I was young, I was told that I ________ play with matches.

a. wouldn’t b. needn’t c. mustn’t d. daren’t

4. — She looks very happy. She _____ have passed the exam.

— I guess so. It’s not difficult after all.

a. should b. could c. must d. might

5. — Shall I tell John about it?

— No, you _____. I have told him already.

a. needn’t b. wouldn’t c. mustn’t d. shouldn’t

C C A


Grammar26

Grammar

  • 现在分词  主动

  • 过去分词  被动

  • running water

  • the flowers gathered this morning

  • 分词  现在分词/过去分词

  • 现在分词  进行

  • 过去分词  完成

  • growing crops

  • fallen leaves


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Grammar

  • 现在分词/过去分词的用法

  • 状语从句的省略用法 (when/whenever/until/once等)

  • 从句主语与主句主语相同

  • 从句中的动词为行为动词

  •  1)主语省略

  • 2)主动关系谓语改成现在分词

  • 被动关系谓语改成过去分词

  • 3)关系代词可省可不省


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Grammar

  • 现在分词/过去分词的用法

  • 状语从句的省略用法 (when/whenever/until/once等)

When she heard the news, she cried.

(When) hearing the news, she cried.

When she was given the apple, the little girl smiled.

(When) given the apple, the little girl smiled.


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Grammar

  • 现在分词/过去分词的用法

  • 状语从句的省略用法 (when/whenever/until/once等)

2. 从句主语与主句主语相同

从句中的动词为be动词

 1)主语省略

2)be动词省略

When (I was) a boy, I looked at such things differently.

We will do our best to help them whenever (it is) possible.

He watched TV while (he was) eating.


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Grammar

  • Practice

  • Though ______ money, his parents managed to send him to university.

  • a. lacked b. lacking of c. lacking d. lacked in

  • 2. She asked me to help her, ______ that she couldn’t move the desk alone.

  • a. only to realizeb. realizing

  • c. having been realizedd. realized

C B


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Grammar

  • Practice

3. Unless ______to speak, you should remain silent at the conference.

a. invited b. inviting

c. being invited d. having invited

4. The house had one of the windows _______ in the storm yesterday.

a. breaking b. to be breaking

c. brokend. to be broken

A C


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Grammar

  • 独立主格结构

  • 从句  1. 独立主语

  • 2. 谓语动词  现在分词/过去分词

Since he was absent, nothing could be done.

He being absent, nothing could be done.

If everything is taken into consideration, your work is well done.

 Everything taken into consideration, your work is well done..


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Grammar

  • Practice

  • The meeting _______ over, we all left the room and drove home.

  • a. is b. to be c. being d. would be

  • 2. ______________, they will go and visit the zoo.

  • a. Weather permitting b. Weather permitted

  • c. Weather being permitted d. Weather having permitted

C A


Grammar27

Grammar

  • 从句

  • 强调结构

  • 平行结构


Grammar28

Grammar

  • 从句

  • 名词性从句

  • 定语从句

  • 状语从句


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (主语从句)

  • It is believed/said/reported/estimated/demanded/proved

  • /pointed out… 据信/据说/据报道/据估计/据要求/据证/据指出……

  • 2.It occurred to me that… 我突然想到……

  • 3.形式主语

  • It is a miracle that he survived the accident.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (宾语从句)

1.形式宾语

They kept it quiet that he was dead.

take it for granted想当然地认为……

see to it保证,确保

She took it for granted that you knew the matter.

I’ll see to it that you get your reward.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (宾语从句)

2.当主句谓语动词为“认为”,“猜想”的动词时

(assume, suppose, think, believe, expect, guess

imagine…)  宾语从句的否定词not须移至主语谓语上

I don’t think (that) she will succeed.

3. doubt, doubtful引导的宾语从句

主句为肯定句  从句用whether/if

主句为否定句或疑问句  从句用that

I doubt whether/if he will be elected as Chairman.

I don’t doubt that he will pass the examination.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (宾语从句)

2.当主句谓语动词为“认为”,“猜想”的动词时

(assume, suppose, think, believe, expect, guess

imagine…)  宾语从句的否定词not须移至主语谓语上

I don’t think (that) she will succeed.

3. doubt, doubtful引导的宾语从句

主句为肯定句  从句用whether/if

主句为否定句或疑问句  从句用that

I doubt whether/if he will be elected as Chairman.

I don’t doubt that he will pass the examination.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (宾语从句)

4. in that 因为but that 要不是…

I like the city in that I have many friends here.

He would have helped us but that he was short of

money at the time.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (表语从句)

1.主句的主语是reason时  表语从句用that

The reason (why/that/for which) he was absent was that he was ill.

注意:与reason后的定语从句用法做对比


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (同位语从句)

1.同位语从句常放在一些抽象名词后

 fact; idea; hope; conclusion; evidence; opinion;

problem; understanding, etc.

2. 同位语从句可由 1)that 或 2) wh— 疑问词引导

The news that the team won the game is exciting.

The question who should do the work requires consideration.


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (同位语从句)

3.同位语从句有时与从句分开。

The fact remains that he accepted the money.

注意:同位语从句与定语从句的区别


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Grammar

  • 名词性从句 (whether/if 引导的区别)

  • 主语 从句  1. 句首:whether 2. 句尾:whether/if

  • 宾语从句  whether/if

  • 3. 表语从句  whether

  • 4. 同位语从句  whether


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Grammar

  • 定语从句

  • whose 可指人,也可指物。指物时= of which

  • The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied.

  • = The house of which the windows are broken is unoccupied.

  • 2. 关系代词只能用that的情况

  • 1)先行词是all/little/much/none/few/everything/nothing/

  • something/anything, etc.

  • 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时

  • The first thing that I am going to do this evening is to write to my parents.


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Grammar

  • 定语从句

3) 先行词被no/every/some/any/only/very/much等限定词修饰时

This is the very book that I have been looking for.

There is no person that doesn’t make mistakes.

4) 当两个先行词并列,并且分别表示人与动物或人与物时

Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street.

5) 主句是以who/which开头的特殊疑问句

Who is the person that is standing over there?


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Grammar

  • 定语从句

6)当关系代词在从句中做表语

He does not seem to be the man that he was.

7)当定语从句为there be 句型时

I know the difference that there is between you.

3. when, where, why 引导的定语从句

I shall never forget the day when (that/on which) I entered the university.

That is the factory where (that/in which) I worked three years ago.

That is the reason why (that/for which) I am not in favor of the plan.


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Grammar

  • 定语从句

4. 先行词为the way时  关系代词用that/in which

I don’t like the way that/in which he eyed me.

5. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

He is the man who has strong personality.

My brother, who works abroad, is coming next week.

6. as引导的定语从句  正如……

As was expected, he performed the task with success.


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Grammar

  • 定语从句

7. 辨析

This is a place which I’ve long wanted to visit.

I know of a place where we can swim.

I can’t accept the reason which he gave.

The reason why I’m writing is to tell you a party on Saturday morning.


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (时间状语从句)

  • 表示时间的名词短语引导

  •  the moment/the minute/the instant 一……就……

  • the day/the year; any time/last (first) time/next

  • time/each time/every time等

  • Every time I met him, I found him to be taller.

  • The moment he saw me, he turned pale.

  • 2. as soon as; no sooner…than…; hardly/scarcely…when…

  • 一……就……


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (原因状语从句)

  • for 引导

  •  (前面必须有逗号)(比because 语气弱,表推断)

  • We did not go out because it was raining.

  • It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (结果状语从句)

  • so…that…; such…that… 如此……以至于……

  •  so + adj.; such + n.

  • 2. so that + 从句  1)结果状语从句 以至于……

  • 2)目的状语从句 为的是……

  • He made a wrong decision, so that half of his lifetime was wasted.

  • We left early so that we could catch the first train.


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (目的状语从句)

  • lest; for fear that; in case 引导

  • Take a taxi in case you are late for the meeting.

  • I hid the book for fear that she (should) see it.


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (条件状语从句)

  • unless 引导  除非

  • only if 引导  只要

  • if only 引导  要不是…… (可加主句也可不加)

  • If only it would stop raining!

  • If only we had arrived at the station in time, we could have met him.

  • 3. as (so) long as 引导  只要

  • 4. suppose/supposing/provided/providing/given + that从句  如果;假如

  • Given (that) he won’t agree, what shall we do?


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Grammar

  • 状语从句 (让步状语从句)

  • even if/even though 引导  即使

  • as/though 引导  尽管

  • Bad as/though he is, he is not without merits.

  • Search as he would, they could find nobody in the house.

  • Child as he is, he can speak several languages.

  • Much as I admired his courage, I don’t think he acted wisely.

  • 3. whether… or…; wh-词 + ever; no matter + wh-词  无论

  • (whether必须放句首或逗号隔开)

  • All matter, whether it is a gas, a liquid or a solid, expands as the temperature rises.


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Grammar

  • 强调句型

  • It is/was + 强调部分 + that/who + 句子剩余部分

  • It was the problem that the young scientist solved two years ago.

  • It is the man who discovered the law.


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Grammar

  • 平行结构

  • both…and…

  • neither…nor…; either…or…

  • not only…but also…

  • rather than

  • nor; and; but

  • as well as

  • Our teacher asked us to close our books, (to) take out a pen

  • and a piece of paper, and (to) write a composition.

  • I think I’ll have a cold drink rather than coffee.


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Grammar

  • 倒装 (全部倒装)—— 谓语部分全部置于主语前)

  • here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首 —— 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run等表示来去或状态的动词

  • There came the chairman.

  • Here is your letter.

  • 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首 —— 谓语为表示运动的动词

  • Ahead sat an old woman.

  • Notice: 主语为人称代词时不可完全倒装。

  • Here he comes.


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Grammar

  • 倒装 (部分倒装)—— 谓语一部分置于主语前,如助动词或情态动词)

  • 否定词或半否定词置于句首,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until…等

  • Never have I seen such a performance.

  • Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

  • Nowhere will you find the answer to the question.


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Grammar

  • 倒装 (部分倒装)

  • 2.Not only…but also; Hardly/Scarcely…when; No sooner…than等

  • Not only did he refuse the gift, he also criticized the sender.

  • Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

  • so, neither, nor作部分倒装

  • Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

  • If you won’t go, neither will I.


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Grammar

  • 倒装 (部分倒装)

  • Only 在句首作部分倒装

  • Only in this way, can you learn English well.

  • Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

  • as, though 引导的部分倒装句 (尽管,虽然)

  • Try hard as/(though) he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.


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Grammar

  • 倒装 (部分倒装)

  • so…that句型中的so位于句首时,需部分倒装。

  • So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

  • So hard did he work that he fell ill.

  • 7. If条件句虚拟语气的倒装。

  • 8. 表示祝愿的句型。(may)

  • May you all be happy.


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Grammar

  • Practice

  • Not until the early years of the 19th century ______ what heat is.

  • a. man did knowb. man knew

  • c. didn’t man knowd. did man know

  • 2. Do you know Tom bought a new car?

  • I don’t know, ___________.

  • a. nor don’t I careb. nor do I care

  • c. I don’t care neitherd. I don’t care also

D B


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Vocabulary

  • 词类相同而词义不同的词

  • The autumn moon has always been a ______ with poets and lovers of nature.

  • a. targetb. favoritec. character d. nuisance

B

  • 词形相似而词义不同的词

  • Many Europeans _______ the continent of Africa in the 19th century.

  • a. expandedb. explored c. exploded d. exported

B


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Vocabulary

  • 同义词与近义词

  • Today, household chores have been made much easier by electrical _________.

  • a. appliances b. equipment c. facilities d. instruments

A

  • 派生词

  • We must try not to ______ the existing splits within the party.

  • a. deepen b. widen c. lighten d. soften

A


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Vocabulary

  • 容易混淆的词

  • Many difficulties have ______ as a result of the changover to a new type of rule.

  • a. raised b. arisen c. risen d. roused

B

  • 词类的搭配

  • Generally speaking, women are not as _______ on football as men.

  • a. keenb. interested c. familiar d. delighted

A


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Vocabulary

  • 同根串联记忆

前缀 + 词根 + 后缀

前缀 + 词根  词义 (300个)

后缀  词性

exit

out go

e/ex  out

visit

see go


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Vocabulary

  • 同根串联记忆

—ism (思想流派)

Bushism

Maoism

Daoism

Taoism


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Vocabulary

  • 同根串联记忆 (前缀)

anti-; auto-; be-; bi-; bio-; centi-; co-;

con-/col-/com-/cor-; contra-;counter-;

de-; dis-; en-/em-; ex-; extra-; fore-;

in-/il-/im-/ir; in-; inter-; intra-; kilo-;

macro-; mal-; mid-; mini-; mis-; mono-;

multi-; non-; out-; over-; poly-; post-; pre-;

pseudo-; re-; semi-; sub-; super-; tele-;

therm-/thermo-; trans-; tri-; ultra-; un-;

under-; uni-; vice-


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Vocabulary

  • 同根串联记忆 (后缀)

名词后缀

-ability/-ibility; -age; -al; -an/-ian/-arian; -ance/-ence

-ancy/-ency; -ant/-ent; -cy; -dom; -ee; -er/-or/-ar

-ese; -ess; -ful; -hood; -ics; -ion/-ition/-ation

-ism; -ist; -ity/-ty; -ment; -ness; -ology

-ship; -sion/-ssion; -ure

动词后缀

-en; -ify; -ise/-ize


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Vocabulary

  • 同根串联记忆 (后缀)

形容词后缀

-able/-ible; -al; -an/-ian/-arian; -ant/-ent; -ary/-ory

-ate; -en; -ese; -free; -ful; -ic/--ical; -ish; -ive; -less

-like; -ly; -ous/-ious; -some; -ward; -y

副词后缀

-ly; -ward/-wards; -wise


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Vocabulary

  • 词形相似而词义不同

extensiveexcessive

intensiveintense

evidentevidence

extendextent

adaptadopt

objectiveobjection

tendtrend

wanderwonder

considerateconsiderable


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Vocabulary

  • 词形相似而词义不同

staffstuff

declineincline

solutionevolution

contentcontest

formalformat

partialparticle

likelikely

requireinquire

principalprinciple


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Vocabulary

  • 词形相似而词义不同

prescribedescribe

effectiveefficient

physicistphysician

personalpersonnel

dissolveresolve

terribleterrific

ventureadventure

releaserelieve

proceedprecede


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Vocabulary

  • 词形相似而词义不同

dictationdictator

resolutionrevolution

contextconsent

alikeunlike

acquirerequest


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Vocabulary

  • 容易混淆的词

economyeconomics economical economics

assure ensure insure reassure

respect respectable respectful respective

live alive lively living

cloth clothe clothes clothing

circle circular circuit circulate


I

Thank You


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