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Weimar‘s foreign policy, 1922-29 Lecture 10 10 April 2012

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HIST2133. The Weimar Republic through Documents, 1918-1933. Weimar‘s foreign policy, 1922-29 Lecture 10 10 April 2012. Genoa Conference (1922). USA & UK invited G + SU to discuss reparations & EU economic problems: F rejected participation to avoid discussing reparations

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HIST2133.

The Weimar Republic through Documents,

1918-1933

Weimar‘s foreign policy, 1922-29

Lecture 10

10 April 2012

genoa conference 1922
Genoa Conference (1922)

USA & UK invited G + SU to discuss reparations & EU economic problems:

  • F rejected participation to avoid discussing reparations
  • Separate Treaty of Rapallo between G + SU (‘the outsiders’): No mutual claims from wartime + new diplomatic relations

= Strategic success of G but worsening relations with West

= Strong mistrust by F & GB vs. ‘Ghost of Rapallo’

improving foreign relations
Improving foreign relations
  • Dawes Plan & London Conference (1924)
  • Acceptance by French PM Herriot → evacuation of Ruhr (1925)
  • Signing of Locarno treaties (1925)
stresemann s policy
Stresemann’s policy
  • Realistic assessment of G position:
  • Accepted war defeat + dependence on Allies
  • Rejected nationalism & confrontation as harmful
  • Strived to convince Allies of G’s will for peace & for cooperation & for mutual understanding
  • Tried to have Versailles Treaty revised

= Aimed at renewed big-power position for G

stresemann s security policy
Stresemann’s security policy
  • Aimed at peaceful understanding with F to end Ruhr occupation + to have Versailles Treaty revised
  • His secret notes to F + GB to achieve guarantee treaties on basis of given territorial situation in West
  • F generally positive but demanded guarantee treaty also in East (PL) →
locarno conference 1925 german allied security conference
Locarno Conference (1925)German-Allied Security Conference
  • Treaty of Mutual Guarantee: Inviolability of G’s western borders (G, F, B, GB, I)

→ G accepted De-militarisation of Rhineland + gave up permanently Alsace-Lorraine (F) & Eupen- Malmedy (B)

  • Treaties of Arbitration (G with B, F, PL, CZ)

→ G vs. PL renounced border changes by force but no ‘Eastern Locarno’

locarno treaties results
Locarno Treaties: Results

Most important positive event in foreign politic for Europe since war (Oct 1925):

→ End of G moral & political isolation + return as leading European power with enhanced foreign policy options

→ G as permanent member of League of Nations (Sep 1926)

→ Positive repercussions for G expected too quickly but only successively

treaty with soviet union
Treaty with Soviet Union
  • Strong mistrust in SU on G’s turn to West (Locarno) > Stresemann’s parallel talks > Treaty of Berlin (Apr 1926)

= Mutual neutrality in case of outside & non- provoked attack on SU or G

= Mutual non-participation in economic & financial boycotts vs. SU or G

relations with poland
Relations with Poland
  • No ‘Eastern Locarno’ (1925): No guarantee of G-PL borders by any power
  • Treaty of Berlin further pressured on PL
  • Stresemann’s hoped for PL’s economic & financial collapse but PL saved by F
  • No concessions by PL vs. G: Valuable access to Baltic + nationalist sentiments

= Eastern border still open wound for G

relations with france
Relations with France
  • ‘Spirit of Locarno’ as good start
  • Hopeful meeting of Stresemann & Briand to solve economic problems in mutual interest but rejected in both countries (Sep 1926)
  • Briand-Kellogg Pact to outlaw aggressive wars with ca. 60 signatories as major success of Stresemann (1928)
  • Minor developments & general stagnation after 1928
stresemann s merits
Stresemann’s merits

6 years of foreign politics under difficult conditions:

  • Combined peace & revision policies
  • Paved way for peaceful alteration of post-war order + brought G out of isolation
  • Bettered considerably relations of G with former enemies
  • Achieved UK + US support
  • Realistic attitude & ready to accept compromises

= Improved position of G in international politics

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