Perspectives in corporate finance study of contracts and institutions
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

Perspectives in Corporate Finance: Study of Contracts and Institutions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 73 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Perspectives in Corporate Finance: Study of Contracts and Institutions. Kose John, NYU FMA Doctoral Consortium October 2005 . Introduction. Corporate Governance An active research area in Finance, Economics, Accounting and Law

Download Presentation

Perspectives in Corporate Finance: Study of Contracts and Institutions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Perspectives in corporate finance study of contracts and institutions

Perspectives in Corporate Finance:Study of Contracts and Institutions

Kose John, NYU

FMA Doctoral Consortium

October 2005


Introduction

Introduction

  • Corporate Governance

  • An active research area in Finance, Economics, Accounting and Law

  • 1976: Jensen and Meckling, Agency Theory: How different from Principal-Agent paradigm?

  • 1997: Corporate Governance: How different from Agency Theory?

  • Focus on institutions (legal/financial) and other noncontractual mechanisms.

  • Appropriate (as incomplete contracting is the source of agency problems)


Introduction1

Introduction

  • Third Consortium

  • 1987, 1994

  • Different Perspectives of 1987 and 1994

  • Looking back

  • Looking ahead

  • Design of Institutions

  • Gaps in the literature in four areas


1987 corporate finance

1987: Corporate Finance

  • 1988 M&M Thirty Year perspective

  • Post M&M corporate Finance

  • Relaxing the assumptions, still in the backdrop of a well-functioning capital market

  • Personal tax equilibria

  • Asymmetric Information models

  • Agency theory


1994 looking back

1994: Looking Back

  • Jensen and Meckling (JFE 1976)

    • Nexus of contracts view of the firm?

    • Capital Structure?

    • Incomplete Contracts

    • Incentives

  • Capital Structure vs Security Design


1994 looking back1

1994: Looking Back

  • Corporate Finance as a study of contracts and institutions

  • Incomplete contracts

  • Corporate Charter

  • Voting rules


1994 looking back2

1994: Looking Back

  • Junk Bonds and Bankruptcies

    • Debt Renegotiation

    • Bankruptcy Design

  • Privatization

    • Design of Mechanisms

    • Corporate Governance


1994 looking back3

1994: Looking Back

  • S&L crisis

    • Incentives and regulation

    • FDIC Reform


1994 looking ahead

1994: Looking Ahead

  • Perspectives of contract theory

  • Complete, Long-term contingent contracts

  • Incomplete contracting

  • Role of renegotiation

    • Additional constraint "Renegotiation-Proof”

    • Limits commitment power of contracts

    • Delays the revelation of private information

    • Dynamic contracting with renegotiation


1994 looking ahead1

1994: Looking Ahead

  • Concrete Example: Optimality of resetting of options

  • Acharya, John, and Sunderam (JFE, July 2000)

  • Continuation optimality is a constraint on the feasible set of contracts

  • Limited menu

  • Resetting may be optimal

  • Also debt renegotiation and bankruptcy design


Design of institutions

Design of Institutions

  • Taxes

  • Organizational forms

  • Bankruptcy

  • Corporate Charter

  • Syndicated finance

  • Corporate Governance

  • Banks and regulation

  • Privatization


Executive compensation

Executive Compensation

  • Lots of papers

  • Central issues remain not understood

  • Problems with pay-performance sensitivity measures

  • Risk-aversion and incentive provision

  • Incentive effects of options

    • Theoretical

    • Empirical


Design of institutions1

Design of Institutions

  • Design of Bankruptcy

  • Comparitive bankruptcy regimes

  • Comparative Corporate Governance

  • Better Data

  • Needs more theoretical Empirical Work

    • Acharya, John, and Sunderam


Corporate governance

Corporate Governance

  • Differences among corporate governance systems

  • The weights on the different governance mechanisms: Ownership, Bank monitoring, Takeovers, Outside shareholder monitoring

  • How are these mechanisms optimally combined?

  • Design of the optimal governance structure determined by scale of investment and firm growth

  • Function of the degree of development of markets and institutions


Literature empirical

Literature-Empirical

  • La Porta et al. (1997, 1998, 1999, 2002)

  • Legal Protection is an important determinant

  • Better legal protection is associated with

    • Lower concentration of ownership and control

    • More valuable stock markets

    • Higher number of listed firms and evaluation


Literature empirical cont d

Literature-Empirical (cont’d)

  • Gompers, Ishi and Merrick (2001)

    --US firms in the top decile of a “governance index” (related to takeover defenses and shareholder rights) earned significantly higher abnormal returns over those in the lowest decile.

  • Crèmers and Nair (JF, 2005)

  • Crèmers, Nair and Wei (2003)

  • Crèmers, Nair and John (2005)


Literature empirical cont d1

Literature-Empirical (cont’d)

  • John, Mehran, and Qian (2005)

  • John, Litov and Yeung (2005)

  • Litov (2005)


Literature empirical cont d2

Literature-Empirical (cont’d)

  • Hartzell, Gillan and Starks (2003)

  • Hartzell, and Starks (JF, 2003)

  • Brick and Chidambaran (2004)

  • Raheja (JFQA, 2005)

  • Survey: Morck, Wolfenzon and Yeung (JEL, 2005)


Theory

Theory

  • Not much theory

  • Hirshleifer and Thakor (JCF, 1991)

  • Shleifer and Wolfenzon (2001)

  • Chidambaran and John (1991)

  • Alamazan and Suarez (2001)

  • Maug (JCF, 1997)


Design problem

Design Problem

Entrepreneur

Managerial Alignment

Bank Monitoring

The Governance Structure

Takeovers

Large Shareholder Monitoring

The firm

Manager controls investment

and enjoys private benefits


Two step decision

Two Step Decision

  • Step 1:

    • How do the different mechanisms interact

    • How are the different mechanisms combined

    • Natural configurations of mechanisms emerge

  • Step 2:

    • Which of these three configurations does the entrepreneur choose: Which is optimal? Depends on economy characteristics


Main results

  • Concentrated Ownership

  • Bank Monitoring

  • No Takeovers

  • No monitoring by large outside shareholder

  • Diffused ownership

  • Discipline through takeovers, Little use of Bank debt

  • Full ownership

  • No Bank monitoring

  • No takeovers

  • No monitoring by large outside shareholder

  • If large shareholder is incentive compatible, she monitors

Main Results

Myriad structures possible

Results on the nature and interaction of he mechanisms imply that four natural groupings arise

  • Correspond loosely to

Family-Based Governance Structures

Bank-Based Governance Structures

Market-Based Governance Structures


Optimal systems

Optimal systems


Growth and scale of investment

Growth and Scale of Investment

  • Questions

    • How is governance systems a function of the scale of investments?

    • Growth of firms and changes in their governance structure

    • Growth-induced convergence?

    • What governance should emerging economies adopt?

    • Intertemporal and cross-sectional variation in ownership structures


Model setup

Model Setup

  • An entrepreneur

    • A project which can be implemented with flexible investment scale I

    • He has initial wealth A with which he invests in the project

    • He hires a manager to run the firm. The manager raises (I-A) as external financing. Set A = 0.

    • The output is with some positive probability and zero otherwise


First best

First Best

  • In the absence of any agency problems the solution is

    • The entrepreneur chooses scale of investmentto maximize firm value

    • The optimal investment is and

    • firm value is


Agency costs

H

H

-I

-I

0

0

Agency Costs

The Good Project

The Bad Project

  • As , the first project is the good project

  • The manager gets private benefits B from implementing the bad project. The private benefits are uniformly distributed over where , (L is the quality of enforcing institutions)


Governance mechanims

Governance Mechanims

  • There are two governance mechanisms

    • Managerial Ownership a : Higher is this fraction the greater incentive the manager has to choose the good project

    • Takeovers: A raider emerges with a positive probability and implements the good project


Governance solution

Governance Solution

  • Proposition 1:

    • Only one of two governance mechanism is optimal. Either concentrated ownership with no takeovers (insider systems) or diffuse ownership with takeovers (outsider systems)

    • Which is optimal depends on M vs M*(I)

    • Choose outsider systems when


Overall problem

Overall Problem

  • Entrepreneur problems

    • To choose governance structure (i.e ownership a) to minimize agency costs

    • To choose investment scale I

  • Solve the problem is two stages

    • For any given investment level: Choose governance structure

    • Choose the investment level


Agency costs1

Agency Costs

  • Figure 1: Agency Costs under the Two Governance Systems

  • Insider system: Convex, Starts at zero value, increasing in I

  • Outsider system: Concave, increasing in I


Empirical implications

Empirical Implications

  • Implication 1: An increase in the quality of institutions reduces inside ownership. This decrease is larger for economies with less developed markets in comparison to economies with well developed markets

  • Implication 2: In any given economy with degree of development of markets above a threshold, technologies that are implemented at smaller investment scale will have higher concentration of insider ownership, and larger firms, a lower concentration of insider ownership.


Empirical implications1

Empirical Implications...

  • Implication 3: Changes in governance may follow changes in productivity of technology. Increases in productivity will be accompanied by decreases in concentration of inside ownership, and decreases in productivity will be accompanied by increases in concentration of ownership.

  • Implication 4: The cross-sectional and inter-temporal differences in ownership structures would be higher in economies with well developed markets compared to economies without.


Themes

Themes

  • Optimal choice of governance structures and investment levels in different economies

  • Cross-sectional and intertemporal variation in a given economy

  • Markets not developed—insider systems

  • Some development of markets: Small scale, insider systems. Large scale, outsider systems.

  • Growth implies convergence toward outsider systems

  • Also explains Reversals


  • Login