Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction
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Anton GOSAR University of Primorska KOPER-CAPODISTRIA. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC: THE CASE OF ISTRIA – REALITY AND FICTION?. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION INDUCED BY TOURISM: 1991 – 2002 IN

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC: THE CASE OF ISTRIA – REALITY AND FICTION?

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Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

Anton GOSARUniversity of Primorska

KOPER-CAPODISTRIA

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC: THE CASE OF ISTRIA– REALITY AND FICTION?


Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

  • ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

  • INDUCED BY TOURISM: 1991 – 2002 IN

  • THE MEDITERRANEAN

  • AIR POLLUTION

  • UP TO 60% DUE TO INCREASED BOOKINGS OF ALL INCLUSIVE AIR TRAVELS. NEW DEVELOPMENTS: BUDGET AIR CARRIERS (Ryan Air).

    WATER USE

  • UP TO 440 LITERS/DAY/PERSON DUE TO INCREASED NEED OF THE NEW TOURIST INDUSTRY OFFERINGS (GOLF, SNOW-MAKING, FIRE-FIGHTING, ...) – SLOVENIA: 5%.

    WATER POLLUTION

  • UP TO 180 LITERS/DAY/PERSON DUE TO INCREASED VISITS (+ 7% YEARLY) AND “NEW TOURISM”: HOTELS, ROAD MAINTANENCE, MARINAS, ...

    SOIL POLLUTION

  • 12.000 KM2 OF PRISTINE LANDSCAPE POLLUTED DUE TO PESTICIDES ...

    INCREASED URBAN AREA:

  • 550.000 KM2 RURAL ENVIRONMENTS CHANGED TO URBAN DUE TO SECOND HOME AND OTHER TO TOURISM RELATED CONSTRUCTIONS.


  • Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    • • The »environmental awareness« is praised by tourist entrepreneurs and tourists alike and has become a promotional tool within the industry.

    • • Ecological certificates, diplomas, seals already praise some enterprises for its environmental consciousness. “Blue Flag” waves on close to 2300 European beaches and in almost 500 marinas:

    • The Upper Adriatic:

    • ITALY – 8 Bandere Blue;

    • SLOVENIA – 9;

    • CROATIA – 146.

    • Local Brand Names (examples):

    • Pro Eco (Poreč-Parenzo, CRO)

    • Jesolo per l’ambiente (Lido di Jesolo, IT)

    • Heritage Site (Portorož-Portorose, SLO)


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    TOURISM IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC REGION

    • The Upper-Adriatic region occupies an area of northern Italy (the provinces of Veneto and Friuli Veneti-Giulia), the Istrian coast of Slovenia (Primorska) and the provinces of Istria and Primorsko-Goranska (Kvarner) in Croatia.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    TOURISM IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC REGION

    • Tourism visits to the Northern Adriatic go back into the 19. century and has been described by writers, poets and scientist like Lord Byron, Robert Koch, Thomas Mann and Heinrich Maria Rilke.

    • Slovenia is visited yearly by 1.9 million, the provinces of Veneto and Friuli Venetia-Giulia combined have 11.5 million, Istria and Kvarner combined have 3.9 million tourists - making in Slovenia 6.7 million, in the Italian part 50.7 million and in the Croatian part 21.2 million bed-nights a year.

    Together: 78.6 bed-nights (2005), like Costa Brava, Spain.


    Tourism in the upper adriatic

    TOURISM IN THE UPPER ADRIATIC


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    • •At present, the region of Istriais in tourist industry’s (Melia; Kempinski, ADAC) and banking (Hypo Bank) investment interest. In Slovenia nation-state’s newly rich invest into Istrian coastal tourism (DZS, Sava, Istra-benz, Krka, …)

    • The relative proximity to the European continental core (Germany – 180 miles)and its population axis (500 million) is competitive in regard to other similar destinations in Italy, France and Spain.

    • The devolution of Yugoslavia has slowed down the process of the growth of tourism in part of the Alpen-Adria region (ISTRIA) in the 1990’. The change from the “socialist” to market economy and the new nation-state bordersinfluenced the scene in times of transition from communism to democracy and market economy.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    MARKET ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    • • The field-work in the Alpen – Adria region was performed by students of Turistica (The College of Tourism and Hospitality)in June 2004. 

    • .......................................................

    • • A questionnaire was distributed among two hundred guest of hotels in Portorož-Portorose, Poreč-Parenzo, Medulin/Pula-Pola, Umag-Umago, Opatija.

    • Interviews with two dozen hotel managers have been carried out.  


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    Tab. 2: ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND STANDPOINT OF TOURISTS, 2002

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    ECOLOGICAL STANDPOINT OF TOURISTS.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    RESULTS

    •Hotel managers are interested to invest into sustainable development – if appropriate measures bring short-term or mid-term economic benefits. Istria (Poreč; Portorož): reduced energy cost (2004 – 2000) – 30%;

    • Hotel managers dislike the attitude of resort governments as the state, provincial or local administration try to implement ecological measures on costs of operating tourist enterprises.

    • Tourists are in favor of the idea of sustainable development as long as measures implemented do not effect:

    1.their pockets – their finances;

    2.their privacy and behavioral tradition;

    3.expected services at the resort.

    • In resort and municipalities discussion has flamed up if natural heritage is, and should remain, a “no cost good”. The implementation of fees by local communities (environmnetal tax) has steered up discussion.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    PRELIMINARY CONCLUSION

    • • In theory is the personal standpoint of the tourist to the issue of environmental protection positive. Day-to-day reality is different. The topics on pollution seem to be topics of the daily home-town routine and of the working day; on Weekends, Holidays we don’t want to deal with serious issues, such as ENVIRONMENT.

    • • In Europe, the idealistic euphoria of the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, as environmental issues have been tackled, has slowed down, but not died.

    • Tourists are not ready to solve the problem, nor being part of it. They are not discussing, nor want to discuss the issue in their favorite leisurely environment. If matters are getting worse, they react by choosing another resort.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    PROTECTED SITES AND TOURISM IN ISTRIA

    • Coastal tourism makes 1/3 of Slovenia’s (Tourists: 2.2M; Bed-Nights: 7.5M);

    • One-fifth (21%) of the Slovenian coast is under protection.

    • Municipalities consider protected areas as a hindrance to development.

    • Citizens of townships consider the area as a garden of their own and not as a park.

    • Except in one case, protected areas are not includedin profit-making plans of tourist enterprizes.

    • Tourists are often unaware of the existence of a protected area and make seldomvisits. If, they don’t know how to behave.

    • Tourist industry's supply (guiding to/through protected sites) is non-existent.

    • Cooperation on cross-border environmental protection and cross-border tourism products is predominantly of the “new age” (Phare, Interreg).

    • The Barcelona Guidelines and the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative could make a difference.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    OBJECTIVE: PROTECTED SITES TO ENRICH TOURISM

    • PROJECTS IN PROGRESS:

    • tradition and innovation in economy of the region

    • (project "All About Salt");

    • protected areas as buffer-zones, eco-corridors and habitats

    • (project "Let's Preserve the Turtle");

    • protected heritage routes as recreational paths

    • (“Parenzana”);

    • coastal educational path

    • (“The Moon-Bay and its Treasures”).

    • Promoting knowledge to enable tourism industry to promote itself as a unique destination (follow up: increasing the price-range of their services and improving living).

    • Protected areas could be offered as a product addressing different segments of potential visitors. Such a program would improve the quality of services.


    Sustainable tourism development in the upper adriatic the case of istria reality and fiction

    SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – REALITY AND/OR FICTION? Anton GOSAR

    AIM: EDUCATION ON ENVIRONMENT = TOURISM IMPROVEMENT

    • The significance of the protected areas should enrich the overall supply segment of tourism.

    • The protected areas of the coast must become major tourist attractions.

    • As a value adding product, protected areas should improve the income of the tourist industry, the local community and the state.

    • Incorporating quality education on protected areas and on the Mediterranean in the tourism industry's segment of activities.

    • Activating teachers and scientists, public officers and developers, tourist managers and residents to strengthen the tourism industry’s position by the improvement of knowledge on the sustainable management/devlopmentand the environment .


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