Geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states
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Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States. Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames, IA. Acknowledgments. ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map

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Geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states

Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States

Mark P. Widrlechner

USDA-ARS

North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

Ames, IA


Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

  • ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map

  • Spatial Climate Analysis Service - Oregon State University for precipitation maps

  • Cris Nass and Robert Stebbins for help with scanning


Outline of presentation

Outline of Presentation

  • Overview

  • Applying geographic factors to the South Central US

  • Plants and potential sites


Overview

Overview

  • Location-specific factors influencing the adaptation of woody plants in the Midwest

    • Photoperiod regimen

    • Winter injury

    • Moisture balance

    • Soil type


Photoperiod regimen

Photoperiod Regimen

  • Key factor to signal growth and the cessation of growth

  • Directly correlated with latitude

  • Plants evolve in response to the interaction of photoperiod and correlated events


Winter injury

Winter Injury

  • Three main aspects

    • Timing of hardening

    • Mid-winter low temperature survival

    • Timing of dehardening

  • Also, interaction with moisture conditions, especially for evergreens

  • USDA Hardiness Zones (average annual minimum temperature) are an easily obtainable surrogate (especially for regions resembling the target environment)


Moisture balance

Moisture Balance

  • Perhaps as important as winter hardiness (especially in low maintenance situations)

    • Widrlechner et al. (1992) J. Environ. Hort. 10: 192-198 and J. Environ. Hort. 16: 27-32.

  • Can visualize based on the Moisture Index of Mather and Yoshioka: Im = 100((mean annual precipitation/potential evapotranspiration)-1)


Geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states

From Widrlechner (1999) "A Zone Map for Mean Annual Moisture Balance in the North Central United States," Landscape Plant News 10(2): 10-14.


Valuable soil types

Valuable Soil Types

  • pH (neutral to alkaline)

  • High Ca or Na content

  • Relatively poor drainage

  • Thin (for drought tolerance)


Applying this approach to the south central united states

Applying this Approach to the South Central United States

  • Latitude (35 to 40° North)

  • USDA Hardiness Zones (6a and b)


Resulting region

Resulting Region

  • Southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma on the west

  • Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee on the east


Adding the moisture balance criterion

Adding the Moisture Balance Criterion

  • Areas in the western two-thirds of Kansas and Oklahoma have negative moisture balances (too dry)

  • Kentucky and Tennessee have high positive moisture balances (too wet)

  • Parts of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and southern Illinois have appropriate moisture balances

    (Im between 0 and 40)


Working with the moisture balance criterion

Working with the Moisture Balance Criterion

  • In areas that are too dry, target extremely wet sites along rivers, lakes, springs and significant north-facing slopes

  • In areas that are too wet, target limestone barrens and other drought-prone sites

  • In areas that are a good match, one can be broader in collecting


Geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states

Too dry

Im < 0

0 to 20

20 to 40

Too wet Im > 40


Can we find the right soils in this region

Can we find the “right” soils in this region?

  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous or saline soils

  • Thin soils

  • Poorly draining soils


Can we find interesting woody plant populations

Can we find interesting woody plant populations?

  • Plants adapted to appropriate soils

  • Species reaching the northwest edge of their native ranges

  • Endemic species

  • Species with attractive aesthetic characteristics


Oklahoma soils

Oklahoma Soils

  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils

    • Apperson, Catoosa, Foraker, Grainola, Labette, Lenapah, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit (mostly silty clay loams)

  • Thin soils

    • Shidler, Sogn, Talpa (mixed with limestone)

  • Poorly drained soils

    • Choska, Latanier, Lela, Miller, Osage, Wynona (clays)


Oklahoma plants

Oklahoma Plants

  • John E. Williams (1973) Atlas of the woody plants of Oklahoma (QK 155 W55 1973)

  • Forrest L. Johnson and Bruce W. Hoagland (1999) Catalog of the Woody Plants of Oklahoma http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/shrub/cover.htm


Arkansas soils

Arkansas Soils

  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils

    • Clareson, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit silt loams and silt clays

  • Thin and rocky soils

    • Arkana, Elsah, Moko, Sogn, Ventris mostly stony silt loams (often with rock outcrops)

  • Alluvial soils

    • Razort silt loam


Arkansas plants

Arkansas Plants

  • Gary E. Tucker (1976) Guide to the woody flora of Arkansas (QK 153 .T84 1976)

  • Arkansas Biodiversity – The Vascular Flora

    http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/arkansas/arkfamyy.htm


Missouri soils

Missouri Soils

  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils (rocky or thin)

    • Blueye, Brussels, Cedargap, Gasconade, Hercules, Knobby, Moko

  • Rock outcrops

    • Dolomite and other non-cherty limestones

  • Poorly drained soils

    • Gasconade, Snead


Missouri plants

Missouri Plants

  • Julian Steyermark (1963) Flora of Missouri (being revised and updated by George Yatskievych)


Kansas soils

Kansas Soils

  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils

    • Apperson, Catoosa, Kenoma silt loam

  • Thin and rocky soils

    • Shidler, Sogn silty and rocky clay loam

  • Poorly drained soils

    • Clime, Lanton, Osage, Verdigris, Zaar silty loam and silty clay


Kansas plants

Kansas Plants

  • H.A. Stephens (1973) Woody Plants of the North Central Plains

  • Great Plains Flora Association (1977) Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains


Illinois soils

Illinois Soils

  • Neutral to alkaline, some calcareous soils

    • Bold silt loam, La Hogue loam, Hurst, Sable and Virden silty clay loam

  • Upland natric (with sodium) soils

    • Darmstadt, Grantfork, Huey, and Piasa silt loams and silty clay loams

  • Thin soils

    • Rare, isolated limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.

  • Alluvial soils

    • Ambraw, Beaucoup, Birds, Darwin, Dupo, Lawson, McFain, Nameoki, Tice, Titus, Wakeland


Illinois plants

Illinois Plants

  • Works by Robert Mohlenbrock

    • Series on the Flowering Plants of Illinois

    • 2002 edition of the Vascular Flora of Illinois

    • Mohlenbrock and Ladd (1978) Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants

    • Mohlenbrock and Voigt (1959) A Flora of Southern Illinois


Some potential target sites

Some Potential Target Sites

  • OK-KS

    • E ½ of Kay Co., W ½ of Osage Co., W ½ of Chautauqua Co., and all of Cowley Co.

    • Much of Rogers Co., W Craig Co., E Nowata Co., much of Labette Co., and E Montgomery Co.

    • Mayes Co. (W side of Lake Hudson and SW of Locust Grove)


More potential target sites

More Potential Target Sites

  • AR-MO

    • W edge of Fulton Co., N ½ of Baxter, Marion, and Boone Cos., SE ¼ of Taney Co., and possibly S ½ of Ozark Co.

    • W 2/3 of Carroll Co., SE ¼ of Barry Co., and small parts of adjacent Benton and Madison Cos.


More potential target sites1

More Potential Target Sites

  • MO-IL

    • Mississippi floodplain from Perry Co. north towards St. Louis and Jackson to Monroe Cos. ( + limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.)

    • Lower Kaskaskia River and tributaries

    • Natric soils in E ½ of Madison, Bond, and Clinton Cos. and near Hecker in Randolph and St. Clair Cos.


And now a few maps

And now a few maps…


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