geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states
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Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States. Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames, IA. Acknowledgments. ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map

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geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states

Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States

Mark P. Widrlechner

USDA-ARS

North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

Ames, IA

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map
  • Spatial Climate Analysis Service - Oregon State University for precipitation maps
  • Cris Nass and Robert Stebbins for help with scanning
outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Overview
  • Applying geographic factors to the South Central US
  • Plants and potential sites
overview
Overview
  • Location-specific factors influencing the adaptation of woody plants in the Midwest
    • Photoperiod regimen
    • Winter injury
    • Moisture balance
    • Soil type
photoperiod regimen
Photoperiod Regimen
  • Key factor to signal growth and the cessation of growth
  • Directly correlated with latitude
  • Plants evolve in response to the interaction of photoperiod and correlated events
winter injury
Winter Injury
  • Three main aspects
    • Timing of hardening
    • Mid-winter low temperature survival
    • Timing of dehardening
  • Also, interaction with moisture conditions, especially for evergreens
  • USDA Hardiness Zones (average annual minimum temperature) are an easily obtainable surrogate (especially for regions resembling the target environment)
moisture balance
Moisture Balance
  • Perhaps as important as winter hardiness (especially in low maintenance situations)
    • Widrlechner et al. (1992) J. Environ. Hort. 10: 192-198 and J. Environ. Hort. 16: 27-32.
  • Can visualize based on the Moisture Index of Mather and Yoshioka: Im = 100((mean annual precipitation/potential evapotranspiration)-1)
slide8

From Widrlechner (1999) "A Zone Map for Mean Annual Moisture Balance in the North Central United States," Landscape Plant News 10(2): 10-14.

valuable soil types
Valuable Soil Types
  • pH (neutral to alkaline)
  • High Ca or Na content
  • Relatively poor drainage
  • Thin (for drought tolerance)
applying this approach to the south central united states
Applying this Approach to the South Central United States
  • Latitude (35 to 40° North)
  • USDA Hardiness Zones (6a and b)
resulting region
Resulting Region
  • Southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma on the west
  • Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee on the east
adding the moisture balance criterion
Adding the Moisture Balance Criterion
  • Areas in the western two-thirds of Kansas and Oklahoma have negative moisture balances (too dry)
  • Kentucky and Tennessee have high positive moisture balances (too wet)
  • Parts of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and southern Illinois have appropriate moisture balances

(Im between 0 and 40)

working with the moisture balance criterion
Working with the Moisture Balance Criterion
  • In areas that are too dry, target extremely wet sites along rivers, lakes, springs and significant north-facing slopes
  • In areas that are too wet, target limestone barrens and other drought-prone sites
  • In areas that are a good match, one can be broader in collecting
slide15

Too dry

Im < 0

0 to 20

20 to 40

Too wet Im > 40

can we find the right soils in this region
Can we find the “right” soils in this region?
  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous or saline soils
  • Thin soils
  • Poorly draining soils
can we find interesting woody plant populations
Can we find interesting woody plant populations?
  • Plants adapted to appropriate soils
  • Species reaching the northwest edge of their native ranges
  • Endemic species
  • Species with attractive aesthetic characteristics
oklahoma soils
Oklahoma Soils
  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils
    • Apperson, Catoosa, Foraker, Grainola, Labette, Lenapah, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit (mostly silty clay loams)
  • Thin soils
    • Shidler, Sogn, Talpa (mixed with limestone)
  • Poorly drained soils
    • Choska, Latanier, Lela, Miller, Osage, Wynona (clays)
oklahoma plants
Oklahoma Plants
  • John E. Williams (1973) Atlas of the woody plants of Oklahoma (QK 155 W55 1973)
  • Forrest L. Johnson and Bruce W. Hoagland (1999) Catalog of the Woody Plants of Oklahoma http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/shrub/cover.htm
arkansas soils
Arkansas Soils
  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils
    • Clareson, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit silt loams and silt clays
  • Thin and rocky soils
    • Arkana, Elsah, Moko, Sogn, Ventris mostly stony silt loams (often with rock outcrops)
  • Alluvial soils
    • Razort silt loam
arkansas plants
Arkansas Plants
  • Gary E. Tucker (1976) Guide to the woody flora of Arkansas (QK 153 .T84 1976)
  • Arkansas Biodiversity – The Vascular Flora

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/arkansas/arkfamyy.htm

missouri soils
Missouri Soils
  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils (rocky or thin)
    • Blueye, Brussels, Cedargap, Gasconade, Hercules, Knobby, Moko
  • Rock outcrops
    • Dolomite and other non-cherty limestones
  • Poorly drained soils
    • Gasconade, Snead
missouri plants
Missouri Plants
  • Julian Steyermark (1963) Flora of Missouri (being revised and updated by George Yatskievych)
kansas soils
Kansas Soils
  • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils
    • Apperson, Catoosa, Kenoma silt loam
  • Thin and rocky soils
    • Shidler, Sogn silty and rocky clay loam
  • Poorly drained soils
    • Clime, Lanton, Osage, Verdigris, Zaar silty loam and silty clay
kansas plants
Kansas Plants
  • H.A. Stephens (1973) Woody Plants of the North Central Plains
  • Great Plains Flora Association (1977) Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains
illinois soils
Illinois Soils
  • Neutral to alkaline, some calcareous soils
    • Bold silt loam, La Hogue loam, Hurst, Sable and Virden silty clay loam
  • Upland natric (with sodium) soils
    • Darmstadt, Grantfork, Huey, and Piasa silt loams and silty clay loams
  • Thin soils
    • Rare, isolated limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.
  • Alluvial soils
    • Ambraw, Beaucoup, Birds, Darwin, Dupo, Lawson, McFain, Nameoki, Tice, Titus, Wakeland
illinois plants
Illinois Plants
  • Works by Robert Mohlenbrock
    • Series on the Flowering Plants of Illinois
    • 2002 edition of the Vascular Flora of Illinois
    • Mohlenbrock and Ladd (1978) Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants
    • Mohlenbrock and Voigt (1959) A Flora of Southern Illinois
some potential target sites
Some Potential Target Sites
  • OK-KS
    • E ½ of Kay Co., W ½ of Osage Co., W ½ of Chautauqua Co., and all of Cowley Co.
    • Much of Rogers Co., W Craig Co., E Nowata Co., much of Labette Co., and E Montgomery Co.
    • Mayes Co. (W side of Lake Hudson and SW of Locust Grove)
more potential target sites
More Potential Target Sites
  • AR-MO
    • W edge of Fulton Co., N ½ of Baxter, Marion, and Boone Cos., SE ¼ of Taney Co., and possibly S ½ of Ozark Co.
    • W 2/3 of Carroll Co., SE ¼ of Barry Co., and small parts of adjacent Benton and Madison Cos.
more potential target sites1
More Potential Target Sites
  • MO-IL
    • Mississippi floodplain from Perry Co. north towards St. Louis and Jackson to Monroe Cos. ( + limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.)
    • Lower Kaskaskia River and tributaries
    • Natric soils in E ½ of Madison, Bond, and Clinton Cos. and near Hecker in Randolph and St. Clair Cos.
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