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Nutrient management tools for protecting environmental quality while maintaining economic sustainability: Tools that meet a regulatory requirement – The Wisconsin P Index L. Bundy, L.W. Good, P Kaarakka, W. Jarrell University of Wisconsin-Madison The Wisconsin P Index Structure of P index

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L bundy l w good p kaarakka w jarrell university of wisconsin madison l.jpg

Nutrient management tools for protecting environmental quality while maintaining economic sustainability:Tools that meet a regulatory requirement – The Wisconsin P Index

L. Bundy, L.W. Good, P Kaarakka, W. Jarrell

University of Wisconsin-Madison


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The Wisconsin P Index quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

  • Structure of P index

  • Research basis for P index estimates of P loss

  • Application of P index


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The Wisconsin P Index quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

  • Indicates potential of a field to deliver P to surface water

  • P index values used to rank fields for P loss

  • Identifies management options for reducing P loss


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Where does the P Index fit in nutrient management planning? quality while maintaining economic sustainability:


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The P Index and Nutrient Management Planning quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

  • Tool for implementing P-based planning

  • Options for P applications:

    • Use Wisconsin P index

    • Rates based on soil test P values


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Components of the Phosphorus Index (PI): quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

PI = PP + SP

PI =Total P index

PP =Particulate P

SP =Soluble P


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Sediment delivered to edge of field calculated by RUSLE2 quality while maintaining economic sustainability:Assumes no concentrated flow in field, but includes effects of in-field deposition if multiple field slope or management segments are entered in the program.

Field

Delivery point for P Index calculation: perennial or intermittent stream

Sediment travels via concentrated flow from edge of field to waterway

Particulate P Movement

Particulate P = Sediment loss x Sediment P concentration x Sediment delivery ratio


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Dissolved P Movement quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

Soluble P = Annual runoff volume x Dissolved P concentration

Dissolved P delivered to edge of field calculated as annual rainfall plus snowmelt runoff volume times the average runoff P concentration

Field

No off-field infiltration. Volume of runoff and concentration of P in the runoff does not change with distance to delivery point.

Delivery point for P Index calculation: perennial or intermittent stream


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Wisconsin Datasets used for P Index quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

Development

  • Simulated rainfall runoff:

  • Alfalfa – 20 events

  • Corn – 267 events, 4 sites

    Varying:

    • Tillage

    • Manure applications

    • Timing

    • Soil test P


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Research ongoing. Datasets growing.


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Soil hydrol. group quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

Field slope (%)

Soil group

Contour, Terrace,

Residue Mgt.

Crop

Distance (Field to H2O) & Ave. Dist. slope (%)

Erosion rate

Bray P-1 soil test

Manure rate & type

Avail. P2O5

Month of manure application

Fert. Rate, P2O5 %

Incorporated (X)

Frozen ground (X)

Parameters needed to calculate P index values


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The Interpretation of the Wisconsin PI - field basis quality while maintaining economic sustainability:

0 - 2: Minimal risk, N-based management

2 - 6: PI should not increase over 4 years or length of average rotation

6 -10: Implement plans to decrease PI to <6 over two rotations (max. 6 years)

> 10: Lower PI to <10 over one rotation or 4 years, anddecrease PI to <6 over two additional rotations or 6 years


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PP = Annual mass loss x quality while maintaining economic sustainability: sediment P concentration

SP = Annual volume loss x runoff P concentration


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Soil water soluble P can be predicted from soil test P quality while maintaining economic sustainability:


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Runoff dissolved P can be predicted by soil test P and soil type

Simulated rainfall runoff corn plots without manure applications



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New P additions to a field can be accounted for in P Index calculations adjusting soil test P concentrations used in dissolved P concentration calculations


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Natural runoff results show average runoff dissolved P concentrations related to soil test P


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Relationship between average runoff dissolved P concentrations and soil test P on corn plots at Arlington, April through July, two soils, varying manure history and tillage


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Particulate P concentrations can be predicted with soil test P

PP concentration = STP x Enrichment ratio


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Relationship between soil test P and total P for soils from simulated rainfall runoff plots from three sites


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Enrichment ratio simulated rainfall runoff plots from three sites

= Sediment P/Soil Total P


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Sediment P enrichment ratio for simulated rainfall runoff plot events

No enrichment for simulated and natural runoff from corn!


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PP = Annual mass loss x plot events sediment P concentration

SP = Annual volume lossx runoff P concentration

Concentrations are only half of the story!

P Index web site

http://wpindex.soils.wisc.edu/

has more information


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Single-event worst-case losses from surface manure applications are added to estimated annual P delivery


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Runoff dissolved P and particulate P from simulated rainfall event one week after a 32 ton per acre dairy manure surface applicationto silt loam soil in the Spring (Lancaster) and Fall (Arlington) 


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  • The additional SP load from event one week after a 32 ton per acre dairy manure surface application

    • Spring manure = 0.5 %

    • Fall manure = 3.7 %

  • of the manure water soluble P.

  • The additional PP load from

    • Spring manure = 0

    • Fall manure = 2.9 %

  • of the manure total P.


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    Putting it all together: event one week after a 32 ton per acre dairy manure surface application

    The P Index shows the relative effects of different field management practices on P loads


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    Improved management practices to decrease PI if values are too high

    Lower Bray PI (see above for particulate P)

    Low-disturbance

    manure incorporation

    Eliminate mineral

    P supplements

    Soluble P

    too high

    Decrease soluble P

    in manure

    Chemically sorb or

    precipitate P

    Change winter

    spreading

    Storage

    Spread on low-risk

    sites


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    P Index Values for Grant County Corn Field too high

    Rozetta silt loam soil, 6% slope, Bray P 50 ppm

    7

    6

    Winter Manure

    Fall Manure

    Winter Manure

    5

    No Manure

    4

    Fall Manure

    Spring Manure

    P Index

    3

    Spring Manure

    No Manure

    2

    1

    0

    Chisel Plow

    No - till

    Particulate P

    Soluble P


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    The P Index and Nutrient Management Planning too high

    • P index is not the ultimate solution to nutrient management

    • Balancing nutrient inputs and removals is the ultimate goal

    • Using the P index can minimize environmental problems until balance is achieved


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    SNAP-Plus too high

    Output: Field by field fertilizer and manure application plan, P Index value, soil loss estimate

    Nutrient application

    calculator

    Entry: Field by field crop manage-ment info

    P Index calculator

    RUSLE2 soil

    loss calculator

    The SNAP-Plus program will produce field-by-field nutrient management plans that will meet the 590 Nutrient Management Standard with a P Index value and soil loss estimate for each field


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