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TODAY Religion Catholic tradition Others Inter-Personal socio-cultural traits Industrial history & geography LAST TIME- Questions? Social Geographies Social development indicators Race and ethnicity Spatial distributions Race and society in LA Catholic Heritage I

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Today l.jpg
TODAY

  • Religion

    • Catholic tradition

    • Others

  • Inter-Personal socio-cultural traits

  • Industrial history & geography


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LAST TIME- Questions?

  • Social Geographies

    • Social development indicators

  • Race and ethnicity

    • Spatial distributions

    • Race and society in LA


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Catholic Heritage I

  • Spanish Catholic roots

  • Spiritual conquest — an integral part of the conquest of the Americas

  • Legacy of Church’s history in Latin America

    • Identified with power/economic elite

    • Reform in form of liberation theology => oppression of the poor is a sin


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Catholic Heritage II

  • Overwhelmingly people say “soy Catholico” = “I am a Catholic”

    • Church attendance is often low

    • But presence is everywhere

  • “Folk” Catholicism — merging of Roman Catholic ritual and beliefs with indigenous (Amerindian) beliefs (syncretism)

  • Roman Catholic beliefs have merged with (or been used to mask) various African religious traditions in the Caribbean and Brazil especially


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Obatala known as the parent of the Orishas and all human kind. The saint he represents is "Our lady of Mercy“

© 2005-2006 www.santeriareligion101.com


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Lukumi (Santería) Altar kind. The saint

©2000 Latitude International Products


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Religion: Non-Catholic kind. The saint

  • Hindu and Islam — imported with indentured labor to Suriname, Guiana, Trinidad & Tobago mostly (but minorities in all of the Caribbean)

  • Judaism — accompanied 1st migrants from Spain (conversos)

  • Evangelical Protestants — Protestants outlawed in Spanish/Portuguese colonial times

    • Very rapid growth in past few decades

    • ~40% of Guatemala

    • ~1/3 of Brazil


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The Mosque of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in La Guajira, Colombia. It is the second biggest mosque in Latin America.


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Inter-Personal socio-cultural traits It is the second biggest mosque in Latin America.

  • Machismo — men in control of their lives and the lives of others in their lives

  • Marianismo — roughly the inverse of machismo (from the idea that the ideal woman resembles Mary in her virtue and purity)

  • Role conflict (e.g., casas chicas)

  • “Personalismo” — much of social, economic, indeed all life in LA depends on social/family ties & personal spheres of influence and obligation


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Industrialization in the late 19th Century — up through WWII

  • Export Processing Industrialization (a follow on from colonial patterns)

  • Low technology manufacture of basic consumer goods

  • Era of WW I; Great Depression; through WW II


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Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) (1940s — 1970s)

  • Legitimized by Argentine economist Raul Prebish in 1940 and adopted as official policy by the UN after WWII


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How ISI works 1970s)

  • Imposed quotas or tariffs to increase the price of imported manufactured goods

  • Idea is to stimulate local industries

  • NOT a new idea


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Consequences of previous rounds of industrialization 1970s)

  • A legacy of: Colonial; 19th C; and especially ISI industrialization

  • Spatially uneven: largest states benefit most

  • Smaller states forced to band together


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Economic & other assumptions of ISI 1970s)

  • Presumes that “under development” is partly the result of uneven terms of trade between LA and the more developed Atlantic world

  • Isolating the country’s economy from the wider world’s economy will allow it to develop without the pressures from the Atlantic World

  • Attempt to recreate a mini-model of the economy of more developed states

  • Strongly involve the state in economic activities via state enterprises etc.


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Problems with ISI 1970s)

  • Role of modern technology in ISI

  • Role of changed imports in ISI

  • Role of foreign control in ISI

  • Role of role of governments in ISI

  • Inefficient management due to lack of competition

  • Loans to do all this not easily repaid => demands to “restructure” economy”


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