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The New Deal and Reform. Chapter 27 1933-1940. Roosevelt and the New Deal. Chapter 27 Section 1. First 100 Days. Roosevelt called Congress into a special session that lasted from March 9 to June 6, 1933.

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the new deal and reform

The New Deal and Reform

Chapter 27

1933-1940

roosevelt and the new deal

Roosevelt and the New Deal

Chapter 27

Section 1

first 100 days
First 100 Days
  • Roosevelt called Congress into a special session that lasted from March 9 to June 6, 1933.
  • In that first 100 days, it passed more significant legislation than it usually manages in two years.
starting alphabet soup thursday 2 8 07
Starting Alphabet Soup (Thursday 2-8-07)
  • Use you books (chapter 27) and fill out the chart of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs.
  • The Three R’s
    • The New Deal is based on Relief, Reform, Recovery
    • Relief - direct payments to individuals
    • Reform - change something to make it better
    • Recovery- government spending money to make jobs
an exercise in creativity friday 2 9 07
An Exercise in Creativity(Friday 2-9-07)
  • Charted out for you on page 683 is a complete list of the agencies created under the New Deal.
  • Choose one of the agencies listed and create a poster based on a simple style. Make it simple!
  • You poster is due at the end of the period. You must identify the agency and create a picture related to the program’s purpose.
bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • Use the time line in your books to answer the following two questions:
    • What European country was engaged in a civil war during Roosevelt’s second term as President (hint page 586)?
    • How many years passed between the beginning of the New Deal and the Second New Deal (hint page 676)?

GET OUT YOUR NOTE SHEETS AND ALPHABET SOUP WORKSHEETS AS WELL!!!!

many people need jobs
Many People Need Jobs
  • The Civilian Conservation Corps put unemployed single males to work building roads, planting trees, and helping soil-erosion and flood-control projects.
emergency relief
Emergency Relief
  • Congress’s second action was to pass the Federal Emergency Relief Act, which gave more general help to the unemployed.
  • Harry Hopkins also set up the Civil Works Administration.
  • Some of the jobs created by these programs were so unnecessary that the word boondoggle came into use.
farmers agree to limit production
Farmers Agree to Limit Production
  • The nation’s farmers were caught between huge surpluses and low prices.
  • Under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the federal government agreed to pay farmers a certain amount for every acre of land left unseeded.
the aaa
The AAA
  • It also paid hog farmers to slaughter 6 million swine.
  • Some people were upset by the deliberate destruction of food at a time when many people were hungry.
tenet farmers worksheet
Tenet Farmers Worksheet
  • Color and answer the questions on the worksheet entitled “Drawing conclusions: Tenet Farms in 1930”
  • On the reverse side try and fill in the boxes using your Alphabet Soup pack.
    • In the blank boxes write the solution FDR and his advisors found. This is to review and get you looking at the important New Deal Programs.
    • When you are done hand in to Miss Rowles. This is your exit ticket for today!
bell ringer12
Bell Ringer
  • What was the purpose of Roosevelt’s First New Deal (or at least what we have looked at so far)? Was it relief, recovery, or reform? How do we know?
the tva develops natural resources
The TVA Develops Natural Resources
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority was the first example of regional planning by the federal government.
congress regulates finance
Congress Regulates Finance
  • The Economy Act lowered the salaries of government workers and reduced payments to veterans.
  • FDR hoped this act would appease people who were worried about excess federal spending.
congress regulates finance15
Congress Regulates Finance
  • The Home Owners Loan Corporations provided government loans to homeowners who were facing foreclosure because they could not meet their mortgage payments.
congress regulates finance16
Congress Regulates Finance
  • The Securities Act gave the Federal Trade Commission the power to supervise new securities.
  • Now companies that wanted to sell stock had to give the public full information.
  • The Glass-Steagall Act set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to protect bank deposits up to $5,000.
the nira promises to help
The NIRA Promises to Help
  • The National Industrial Recovery Act was one of the most controversial laws Congress passed.
  • NRA codes were designed to limit production so that prices would go up and producers would make a profit.
  • Price controls were designed to end cutthroat competition in which goods were sold for less than it cost to make them.
priming the pump
Priming the Pump
  • The PWA was set up to undertake pump priming, or spending of money to create jobs.
exit ticket questions
Exit Ticket Questions
  • Why did Roosevelt consider putting people to work as the solution to the country’s major problem?
  • What did the CCC, the FERA, and the PWA all have in common?
  • GIVE TO MISS ROWLES AS YOU LEAVE.
  • CROSS WORD PUZZLE DUE ON FEB. 23-THE SAME DAY AS YOUR TEST FOR THIS CHAPTER!
bell ringer20
Bell Ringer
  • Get out your Section 1 worksheet that was assigned as homework. I will be around to see if it is done.
  • Answer the following question:
    • What conditions brought about the need for the Agricultural Adjustment Act (later known as the Administration)?
roosevelt and the system
Roosevelt and the System
  • In 1935 Roosevelt recommended that the federal government shift its emphasis from relief and recovery to reform.
  • The body of legislature that he then began is usually called the Second New Deal.
reorganize relief
Reorganize Relief
  • Except for the CCC and the PWA, all other work programs were put under the Works Progress Administration headed by Harry Hopkins.
  • This organization set out to create many jobs as fast as possible.
  • It received a budget of $5 billion, the largest sum any nation had ever spent for public welfare at one time.
reorganized relief
Reorganized Relief
  • The WPA found work for unemployed writers, artists, musicians, and actors.
  • Public buildings were decorated with murals.
  • Newly formed symphony orchestras gave free public concerts and help to make known the music of Aaron Copeland, Virgil Thompson, and other American composers.
reorganized relief25
Reorganized Relief
  • People who had never seen a play were able to attend productions such as Waiting for Lefty by Clifford Odets.
  • A black version of a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta was produced.
  • Authors who become well known later, such as Nelson Algren and Richard Wright, received training and help.
congress begins social security
Congress Begins Social Security
  • In 1935 the United States followed the example of other industrial nations and established a system of social insurance.
  • The centerpiece of the Social Securities Act was a pension system for retired workers and their spouses.
overseeing the stock market
Overseeing the Stock Market
  • The Securities Exchange Commission, which had been established in 1934, was given the power to prevent insider trading.
  • Placed in charge of the new SEC was Joseph P. Kennedy.
homework
Homework
  • I know it is a long weekend and no one wants homework, but I have to do it. Sorry…but look on the bright side, I am giving you time in class to get it done.

SO GET IT DONE!!!!

supplement your notes
Supplement Your Notes
  • Using the computers in class, find:
    • Aaron Copeland, Virgil Thompson, Clifford Odets, Nelson Algren, and Richard Wright
      • Writer, actor, musician?
      • What types of music/plays did they write?
      • Any awards?
      • Does it list their political party affiliation?
    • What is Waiting for Lefty about? Why was this a timely topic to base a play on?
bell ringer30
Bell Ringer
  • Get out your homework from the weekend.
  • Answer the following question:
    • What was the goal and purpose of the WPA?
reforming utility companies
Reforming Utility Companies
  • The Public Utility Holding Company Act said that holding companies that failed to promote efficiently and savings over the next five years would be dissolved.
  • Enforcing the act proved to be difficult.
taxing the wealthy
Taxing the Wealthy
  • The Revenue Act of 1935 was an attempt to break up large accumulations of wealth.
  • It increased the rates of gift and estate taxes.
  • It increased the tax rates for people with large incomes.
taxing the wealthy33
Taxing the Wealthy
  • In addition, it provided for a graduated corporate income tax that favored small businesses over large ones.
  • Some people described the act as “soaking the rich.”
controlling banks
Controlling Banks
  • The Banking Act of 1935 replaced the old Federal Reserve Board with a 7-member board of governors to be appointed by the President for 14 year terms.
  • The board was given the power to decide whether to raise or to lower the nation’s money supply.
the court steps in
The Court Steps in
  • In the Schechter Poultry Corporation v. US case, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Industrial Recovery Act was unconstitutional.
  • The Court ruled that it gave legislative powers to the executive branch and that some of the industry codes covered businesses that took place entirely within a state.
congress takes a new approach
Congress Takes a New Approach
  • Congress then passed the National Labor Relations Act, more commonly known as the Wagner Act.
  • The act said that employers had to bargain with their workers, and also set up the National Labor Relations Board.
bell ringer38
Bell Ringer
  • Please answer the following question:
    • Explain what the Revenue Act of 1935 and the Banking Act of 1935 did.
court steps in again
Court Steps in Again
  • In the 1936 case of the United States v. Butler, the Supreme Court struck down the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
  • It ruled that the processing tax out of which farmers were paid to restrict production was not a tax at all.
equal or equivalent
Equal or Equivalent
  • Another name for a fair price for agricultural products was parity.
the liberty league
The Liberty League
  • Charges that the New Deal was endangering the Constitution and slowly establishing a dictatorship were made by an organization called the Liberty League.
extremists voice their opinion
Extremists Voice Their Opinion
  • A leading muckraker of the Progressive Era, Upton Sinclair called for higher income and inheritance taxes as well as consumer cooperatives.
extremists voice their opposition
Extremists Voice Their Opposition
  • Dr. Francis Townsend led a movement that helped push through the Social Securities Act.
  • Pay 200 dollars a month
extremists voice their opposition44
Extremists Voice Their Opposition
  • Father Charles Coughlin came out for nationalizing banks, public utilities, and natural resources.
  • However, it soon became clear that he was strongly anti-Semitic.
extremists voice their opposition45
Extremists Voice their Opposition
  • The most dangerous of the New Deal’s extremist foes was Senator Huey Long.
  • His championship of the poor against corporate giants made him a hero to many people.
  • In 1934 he introduced a nationwide social program called Share our Wealth.
  • Its motto was Every Man a King.
in 1936 roosevelt wins again
In 1936 Roosevelt Wins Again
  • In 1936 Roosevelt won every state except Maine and Vermont in beating Alfred M. Landon, the Republican candidate.
fdr attempts to pack the court
FDR Attempts to Pack the Court
  • Roosevelt believed that the Supreme Court had been too conservative in knocking down the NIRA and the AAA.
  • His “court packing bill” set off a storm of protest.
  • It never got through Congress.
  • In the end, Roosevelt got the kind of Supreme Court he wanted.
fdr attempts to pack the court48
FDR Attempts to Pack the Court
  • He appointed seven justices in the next four years.
  • However, the attempt to pack the Court turned out to be a serious political mistake.
  • By 1939 the New Deal, for all practical purposes was over.
exit ticket questions49
Exit Ticket Questions
  • Please answer both questions before leaving class:
    • How does the Supreme Court have the authority to call things unconstitutional?
    • How did the Supreme Court rulings in 1935 and 1936 affect New Deal legislation?
agenda for today
Agenda for today…
  • Bell Ringer worksheet
  • Go over the exit ticket answers
  • Make sure all boxes are filled in correctly
  • Ch 27 Section 4
  • Homework sheet
  • Finish up notes and Jeopardy tomorrow
labor unions grow
Labor Unions Grow
  • A number of labor leaders wanted to organize industrial unions, particularly in industries such as automobile, steel, textile, and rubber.
  • So they formed the Committee for Industrial Organizations.
labor unions grow53
Labor Unions Grow
  • Among the techniques the CIO used was the sit-down strike.
  • Instead of walking off their jobs, workers remained inside the plant but did not work.
labor unions grow54
Labor Unions Grow
  • In 1937 the AFL expelled the CIO unions.
  • The split in the labor movement lasted until the two unions combined again in 1955.
minorities receive more attention
Minorities Receive More Attention
  • FDR often sought the opinions of highly placed black government workers, who were sometimes referred to as the Black Cabinet.
african americans
African Americans
  • Eleanor Roosevelt’s most spectular step in recognizing black achievement involved the singer Marian Anderson.
  • In 1939 the Daughters of the American Revolution refused the singer the use of the Constitution Hall for a concert because of her color.
american indians
American Indians
  • In 1933 Roosevelt appointed John Collier to be Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
  • He made several suggestions that became part of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
bell ringer58
Bell Ringer
  • Grab a yellow worksheet from the front desk.

DO NOT DO ANYTHING WITH IT YET!!!!

  • Get out your boxes of the Alphabet Soup and be ready to mark the ones Miss Rowles wants to make sure you know for the test on Monday Feb 26.
  • Also get out your section 4 notes, we will finish them today.
mexican americans
Mexican Americans
  • When the dust bowl sent thousands of ruined farmers to California, Mexican Americans found it harder than ever to make a living there.
  • Competition among workers drove some farm wages as low as nine cents an hour.
family life
Family Life
  • Babies were expensive.
  • As a result f the depression, young families were distinctly smaller than ever before.
entertainment
Entertainment
  • The main source of amusement was the radio.
  • Jack Benny, Bob Hope, George Burns- radio entertainers (add to your yellow sheet)
  • For outside entertainment, the family usually went to a movie.
  • People in pinched economic circumstances got vicarious, or second hand, pleasure in watching the make-believe frolics on the silver screen.
women make their mark
Women Make their Mark

Margaret Mitchell wrote Gone with the Wind, which sold over 12 million copies and won the Pulitzer Prize for literature in 1937.

women make their mark63
Women Make their Mark
  • Amelia Earhart became the first female passenger on a transatlantic flight in 1928.
  • In 1932 she flew alone across the Atlantic.
  • In 1937, while attempting an around the world flight, she was lost in the Pacific.
historian disagree about the new deal
Historian Disagree About the New Deal
  • Economic, the New Deal was a mixed success.
  • It did show, however that some economic security would not destroy fundamental political freedoms.
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