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Retrograde motion of Mars, June to November, 2003 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Retrograde motion of Mars, June to November, 2003. Who is this guy? Use SkyGazer or StarCal to find out! . The Four Seasons. Is the changing seasons caused by the change in the distance between the Sun and the Earth? No. If it is, then - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Retrograde motion of Mars, June to November, 2003

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Retrograde motion of Mars, June to November, 2003

Who is this guy?

Use SkyGazer or StarCal to find out!


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The Four Seasons

Is the changing seasons caused by the change in the distance between the Sun and the Earth?

No. If it is, then

  • The northern and southern hemisphere should have the same season, not opposite season like we have.

  • We should experience real seasonal changes in Hawaii also.


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The Four Seasons: The Effect of the Tilt of Earth’s Rotation Axis


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Factors Affecting Earth’s Temperature

Distance to heat source

Web Project: tutorial on www.astronomyplace.com , Chapter 2, Time and Seasons

Illumination Angle

Click on the Sun to start animation

Noon, Summer Solstice

Sunrise/Sunset,

Winter Solstice


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Solstices and Equinoxes

  • Equinox: An equinox is one of two opposite points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator and ecliptic intersect.

  • Solstice: A solstice is either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equator.

    • Spring Equinox ~ March 21

    • Summer Solstice ~ June 21

    • Fall Equinox ~ September 22

    • Winter Solstice ~ December 21

  • The dates of the equinoxes and solstices are only approximate dates.

    • The actual length of a year is about 365 ¼ days (365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes), not exactly 365 days. We have to add an extra day to a year every four years to keep the seasons synchronized with the seasons (leap year). Over a longer period of time, we need to skip a leap year to compensate the extra minutes we add in every leap year to keep the calendar in sync.

Ecliptic Plane

Spring Equinox

Winter Solstice

Celestial Equator

Fall Equinox

Fall Solstice


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The Reasons for the Seasons on Earth

  • The seasons on Earth are caused by the 23.5º tilt of its rotation axis, and its revolution around the Sun.

  • Although the distance of the Earth to the Sun changes slightly as it orbits around the Sun, its effect is not big enough to cause the four seasons.

  • The seasons for other planets may be due to the changing distance to the Sun, not the tilt of their rotation axis…For example, the orbit of Pluto has a very large eccentricity.


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The Effects of Precession

  • What changes do you expect in these things (or phenomena)

  • 13,000 years later when the Earth’s rotation axis is pointed

  • toward Vega?

  • World Atlas (map of Earth)? No change.

  • Star chart (map of sky)?

    • Location of celestial north would be different

  • Seasons?

    • We will still have four seasons, since the tilt of the rotation axis of Earth with respect to the ecliptic plane is not changed. But the time of the season would be changed. Summer would be in January, and winter would be in July.

  • Constellations?

    • The patterns of stars in the sky would not change much…but their position with respect to celestial north would be different).

 homework#2


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The Moon

  • Facts about the Moon…

  • We see the moon changes its appearances and position in the sky with approximately 30-day cycle.

  • Unlike the stars, Moon can also be seen during the day.

  • We also see that the Moon is always involved in eclipses, and

  • Its position seems to be well correlated with the tide of the ocean.

  • Understanding the motion of the Moon with respect to the Sun and the Earth will explain these phenomena.

The moon revolves around the earth with a period of about 29 ½ days ~ one month!


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  • The orbit of the Moon around Earth is tilted about 18.5 degrees with repect to the ecliptic plane

  • Moon’s orbit around Earth precesses with a period of 18.5 years

Click on the image to start animation:

This is what the orbit of the Moon looks like…

Click on the image to start animation

Motions of the Sun-Moon-Earth System

  • Earth orbits the Sun every 365 ¼ days

  • Moon orbits Earth every 29 ½ days


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  • The changing phase of the Moon…

  • The un-changing face of the Moon…

  • Eclipses

    • Lunar Eclipse

    • Solar Eclipse


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The Face and Phases of the Moon

  • The phase (how much and which side of the Moon is illuminated) of the Moon changes with about one month period…

  • The face (the features on the surface of the Moon) does not change at all…


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The Phase of the Moon

The phase of the Moon depends on the relative position between the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon…


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Phases of the Moon

Click on the image to start animation


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Moon Rise/Set by Phase

Click on the image to start animation


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Why do we Always See the Same Side of the Moon?

The rotation period of the Moon with respect to the universe is exactlythe same as the rotation period of the Moon around the Earth.

Is this a coincidence?

No!  Tidal Lock, Chapter 5.


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  • The changing phase of the Moon…

  • The un-changing face of the Moon…

  • Eclipses

    • Lunar Eclipses

    • Solar Eclipses


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Solar and Lunar Eclipses

Eclipse:

The total or partial obscuring of one celestial body by another…

The obscuration can be either

  • One celestial body blocking the view to the other:

    • Solar eclipse---Moon blocking Earth’s view to the Sun…

  • One celestial body is in the shadow of another:

    • Lunar eclipse---Moon is in the shadow of the Earth…

Lunar eclipse image from http://www.mreclipse.com


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Solar Eclipses

The solar corona is revealed during a total solar eclipse

  • The corona is about one millionth times fainter than the disk of the Sun.

  • Similar to observing stars next to the Sun, the light from the disk must be blocked (by the moon, or by special occulter in the telescope) before we can see the solar corona.


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What Causes Eclipse?

  • The Earth and Moon cast shadows.

  • When either passes through the other’s shadow, we have an eclipse.

  • Because the Sun is an extended bright object, there are two different regions of the shadow:

    • Penumbra is partially illuminated

    • Umbra is completely dark

Click on the image to start animation


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Lunar eclipses

  • Lunar eclipses happens when the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth

    • Everybody on the night side of Earth can see the lunar eclipse.

  • Lunar eclipses can be partial, penumbral, or total.

  • Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon.

Click on the image to start animation


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Click on the image to start animation

Solar eclipses

  • Solar eclipses occur when the shadow of the Moon falls on the surface of Earth

    • Only people in the shadow can see the eclipse.

  • Solar eclipses can be partial, annular, or total.

  • Solar eclipses can occur only at new moon.


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Eclipse Path

When total or ring solar eclipse happens…

  • The diameter of the umbra of lunar shadow is no more than 270 km…you can see the total eclipse only if you are in a very narrow and long eclipse path.

    • In the 1990 total eclipse that passed through the big island of Hawaii, people on Maui and Oahu cannot see the total eclipse!

  • The diameter of the penumbra of the lunar shadow is about 7000 km (Earth’s diameter is about 13,000 km). So, the region that partial eclipse can be seen is quite large…and people on Maui and Oahu could see partial eclipse!

     Eclipse Prediction


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Total Solar Eclipse

What’s the difference between a total and ring eclipse?

The distance between the Earth and the Sun.

You don’t see the Sun at all if you are in the umbra

Surface of the Earth

Sun

Moon

You see the partial Sun if you are in the penumbra

Click on the Sun to start animation

You see the whole Sun outside of the shadow


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Ring Eclipse

  • Ring eclipse happens when the Moon does not completely block the Sun, like partial eclipses…

  • The umbra is NOT completely dark!

  • You see a ring if you are in here

Surface of the Earth

Sun

Moon

You see the partial Sun if you are in the penumbra

Click on the Sun to start animation

You see the whole Sun if you are outside of the shadow


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Distance Between the Moon and Earth

  • Like the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, the orbit of the Moon around the Earth is not a perfect circle.

    • Eccentricity of Earth’s orbit is ~ 0.016

  • The distance between the Moon and Earth change. This is why we have total and ring eclipses

    • Eccentricity of Lunar orbit is ~ 0.05


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Solar Eclipses: A Coincidence?

  • What if the Moon is closer (say twice as close) to the Earth?

  • What if the Moon is farther (say twice as far) away from the Earth?

  • What if the Moon is two-time bigger?

  • What if the Moon is two-time smaller?


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How Often Does Eclipse Occur?

  • Do we have one solar and one lunar eclipse every month, since we have a full and a new Moon every month?

Click on the image to start animation


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How Often Does Eclipse Occur?

  • Do we have one solar and one lunar eclipse every six month, when the nodes line-up with the Earth-Moon line?

    • NO! Because of the precession of the lunar orbit!

  • Nodes: the two points when the Moon crosses the ecliptic plane

    • Only when the nodes are located right between the Earth-Sun line can solar eclipses occur.


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The Precession of Lunar Orbit

  • The orbital motion of the Moon around Earth slowly precesses with an 18.6 year cycle as the Earth orbit the Sun…

Click on the image to start animation


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How Often Does Eclipse Occur?

  • The combination of these motions of the Moon

    • 29 ½ day orbital motion around Earth,

    • 5º tilt of the orbit w.r.t. the ecliptic, and

    • Precession of the lunar orbit w.r.t. the ecliptic,

  • Eclipse occurs with a period of about 18 years and 11-1/3 days  Soras cycle

  • But these eclipses don’t happen at exactly the same location over the Soras cycle…


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Solar Eclipse Forecast

Solar eclipses from 2004 to 2030

Knowing the orbit of the Earth and the Moon, we can now calculate the time and path of solar eclipses with great accuracy.

Back to Eclipse Path


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Eclipses: Summary

  • The parties involved: Sun, Moon, and Earth

  • Motion of the Moon around Earth:

    • 29 ½ day revolution of the Moon around the Sun

    • Tilt (~5º) of the lunar orbit (around the Earth) w.r.t. the Ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane around the Sun)

    • The precession of the lunar orbit w.r.t. Earth-Sun direction

  • Solar eclipse happens when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun.

  • The size and distance of the Moon need to be just right for us to see total eclipse.

    • The changing distance between the Earth and the Moon explains the occurrences of the total and ring solar eclipses.

    • The changing distance between the Earth and the Sun, and the Earth and the Moon explains the difference in the duration of the solar eclipses.

  • Lunar eclipse happens when Earth is between the Moon and the Sun.