Art Throughout European History. Early Renaissance(1400) (The time of the Holy Roman Empire, de Medici rules Florence and Columbus reaches the Americas). Media- the printing press, oil paints and pastels Major Artists- Botticelli, da Vinci, Piero, Lippi.
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Media- the printing press, oil paints and pastels
Major Artists- Botticelli, da Vinci, Piero, Lippi
BotticelliItalian, early Renaissance painter whose Birth of Venus (c. 1485) and La Primavera (1477-78) are often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance. He worked in all the major churches of Florence and in the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
<The Adoration of the Magi
Botticelli painted numerous portraits of the powerful Medici family. He painted portraits of the family and many religious pictures, including the famous The Adoration of the Magi.
<La-Primavera (c.1478), one of Botticelli's most famous works. He created his own style, mixing Neoplatonism and realism. He is most well known for his paintings of beautiful woman, sometimes the Madonna, sometimes goddess’.
>Birth of Venus (c. 1485) is another of Botticelli’s most famous work. This piece was painted for a Medici villa. Like many Rennaissance artists Botticelli tried to capture the former glory of Rome by painting classical myths.
Leonardo Da Vinci was anItalian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495-97) and Mona Lisa (1503-06) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.
“The first object of the painter is to make a flat plane appear as a body in relief and projecting from that plane.”
-- Leonardo Da Vinci
>Mona Lisa(1506) This painting took Da Vinci four years to paint. Da Vinci refused to part with this painting until his death in 1519.
<The Last Supper, painted from 1495-1496, was done on a plaster wall with oil and varnish.
Piero Della Francesca(1416-1492) painted both Battista Sforza and Federigo da Montefeltro(below left) as well as The Flagellation(below right). Piero worked with space and perspective, while combining science and imagination. Almost all of Piero's works are religious in nature—primarily altarpieces and church frescoes.
Lippi, Fra Filippo (circa 1406-1469), was an Italian early Renaissance painter. Fra Filippo’s style recalled the Gothic in its use of fluttering draperies, attenuated figures, and glowing colors as well as stressed the human aspects of his scenes. In his works, such as the fresco series Scenes from the Lives of Saint Stephen and John the Baptist (1452-c. 1465, Prato Cathedral), Fra Filippo combined traditional Gothic landscape elements with the new perspective style to create mysterious, receding backgrounds for his works. Fra Filippo exerted a strong influence on later Florentine art.
Above: Virgin Adoring the Child, 1435.
(The time in which Elizabeth I ruled and Magellan circled the globe)
Media- the first use of the canvas
Major Artists-Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, El Greco, Bruegel
Michelangelo spent four years working for Pope Julius II, while painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel(for example the Creation of Adam, seen below, left). Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet. Michelangelo created multiple life size sculptures(such as Bucchus and David, seen left, top). The marble Pieta, found in St. Peter’s Basilica, is the only piece of work that Michelangelo signed.
Tizaiano Vecellio, commonly known as Titian, was the greatest painter from the Venetia. His work included splendid religious, mythological, and portrait paintings, original in conception and vivid with color and movement. Emperor Charles V appointed Titian court painter and elevated him to the rank of Count Palatine and Knight of the Golden Spur. Towards the end of his life Titian’s vision began to decrease he painted with stronger outlines and broad streaks of paint, this method was a foreshadowing for modern Impressionism.
Toledo in a Storm>
El Greco, a Spanish painter, His artistic roots are diverse: he traveled between Venice, Rome, and Spain (settling in Toledo). The Christian doctrines of Spain made a crucial impact on his approach to painting, and his art represents a blend of passion and restraint, religious fervor and Neo-Platonism, influenced by the mysticism of the Counter-Reformation.
Bruegel, also spelled Brueghel, was the greates Flemish painter of the 16th century. His paintings, including his landscapes and scenes of peasant life, stress the absurd and vulgar, yet are full of zest and fine detail. They also expose human weaknesses and follies.
(Galileo, British colonization of America)
-Baroque- a movement in European painting in the 17th and early 18th centuries, characterized by violent movement, strong emotion, and dramatic lighting and coloring.
Media- the modern pencil was invented
Major Artists- Rubens, Rembrandt, Poussin, Leyster, Caravaggio, Bernini
The Flemish baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens was the most renowned northern European artist of his day, and is now widely recognized as one of the foremost painters in Western art history.
By completing the fusion of the realistic tradition of Flemish painting with the imaginative freedom and classical themes of Italian Renaissance painting, he fundamentally revitalized and redirected northern European painting.
Dutch painter, draftsman, and etcher of the 17th century, a giant in the history of art. His paintings are characterized by luxuriant brushwork, rich color, and a mastery of chiaroscuro. Numerous portraits and self-portraits exhibit a profound penetration of character. His drawings constitute a vivid record of contemporary Amsterdam life. The greatest artist of the Dutch school, he was a master of light and shadow whose paintings, drawings, and etchings made him a giant in the history of art.
French painter, a leader of pictorial classicism in the Baroque period. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII, he spent his entire career in Rome. His paintings of scenes from the Bible and from Greco-Roman antiquity influenced generations of French painters, including David, Ingres, and Cézanne. His work symbolizes the virtues of logic, order, and clarity, and it has influenced the course of French art up to the present day.
Probably the most revolutionary artist of his time, the Italian painter Caravaggio abandoned the rules that had guided a century of artists before him. They had idealized the human and religious experience.
(During this time the steam engine was invented and Ben Franklin experimented with electricity)
-Rococo- 18th century European style, originating in France. In reaction to the grandeur and massiveness of the Baroque period, Rococo employed refined, elegant, highly decorative forms.
Major Artists- Boucher, Watteau
A French rococo artist whose charming and graceful paintings show his interest in theater and ballet, Antoine Watteau is probably best known for his fetes galantes. These romantic and idealized scenes depict elaborately costumed ladies and gentlemen at play in fanciful outdoor settings.
French painter, noted for his pastoral and mythological scenes, whose work embodies the frivolity and sensuousness of the rococo style. He was considered the most fashionable painter of the day.
(During both the French and American Revolutions)
-Neoclassism- a European style from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Its elegant, balanced works revived the order and harmony of ancient Greek and Roman art.
Major Artists- Fragonard, David
Above:The Coronation of Napoleon
Above: The Reader and The Swing
French painter, one of the central figures of Neoclassicism. He won the Prix de Rome.
French painter whose scenes of frivolity and gallantry are among the most complete embodiments of the Rococo spirit. He was a pupil of Chardin for a short while and also of Boucher, before winning the Prix de Rome in 1752.
Above: The Tennis Court Oath
(The of the Louisiana Purchase, the Irish Famine and during the rule of Queen Victoria)
-Romantism- a European movement of the late 18th century to mid 19th century. In reaction to Neoclassism, it focused on emotion over reason, and on spontaneous expression. The subject matter was invested with drama and usually painted with bright colors.
-Realism- a 19th century movement, mostly in France, that rejected idealized academic styles in favor of everyday subjects.
Major Artists- Goya, Delacroix, Gericault, Turner, Daumier, Millet, Courbet
Above: Portrait of Mariana Waldstein, The Shootings of May Third, The Incantation
Goya was a Spanish artist whose multifarious paintings, drawings, and engravings reflected contemporary historical upheavals and influenced important 19th- and 20th-century painters.
> The Massacre at Chios,
Liberty Leading The
Delacroix, Eugène, in full FERDINAND- VICTOR-EUGENE DELACROIX (b. April 26, 1798, Charenton-Saint-Maurice, Fr.--d. Aug. 13, 1863, Paris), the greatest French Romantic painter, whose use of colour was influential in the development of both Impressionist and Postimpressionist painters. His inspiration came chiefly from historical or contemporary events or literature, and a visit to Morocco in 1832 provided him with further exotic subjects.
Painter who exerted a seminal influence on the development of Romantic art in France. Géricault was a fashionable dandy and an avid horseman whose dramatic paintings reflect his colorful, energetic, and somewhat morbid personality.
>The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834
The Grand Canal, Venice 1835<
Turner, John Mallord William (1775-1851). One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, whose work was exhibited when he was still a teenager. His entire life was devoted to his art.
Daumier, Honoré (1808-79). French caricaturist, painter, and sculptor. In his lifetime he was known chiefly as a political and social satirist, but since his death recognition of his qualities as a painter has grown.
Left: The Print Collector
Above: The Uprising
Above: Les Glaneuses, Below:The Walk to Work (Le Depart pour le Travail)
The son of a small peasant farmer of Gréville in Normandy, Millet showed a precocious interest in drawing, and arrived in Paris in 1838 to become a pupil of Paul Delaroche. He had to fight against great odds, living for long a life of extreme penury. He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1840, and married two years later. At this time, the main influences on him were Poussin and Eustache Le Sueur, and the type of work he produced consisted predominantly of mythological subjects or portraiture, at which he was especially adept (Portrait of a Naval Officer, 1845; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen).
Courbet, Gustave (1819-77). The painter Courbet started and dominated the French movement toward realism. Art critics and the public were accustomed to pretty pictures that made life look better than it was. Courbet, against much opposition, truthfully portrayed ordinary places and people.
Above Left: A Burial at Ornans, Above right: The Painter's Studio; A Real Allegory
-Pre-Raphaelite- a group of English artists who joined together to recapture the style of painting of Raphael. They focused on painting from nature, producing detailed, colorful works.
Media- fountain pens and tube paints
Major Artists- Rossetti
<La Ghirlandata October, 1834
>The death of Beatrice from The Divine Comedy by Dante, the original Italian poet. This painting also reflects Rossetti's greif after the death of his wife, Elisabeth Siddal, the model for Beatrice, painted from memory after her death.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti was a poet, painter, and designer and the cofounder of the PRE-RAPHAELITES. The pre-raphaelites were a group of English painters and poets who hoped to bring to their art the richness and purity of the medieval period.