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Lesson 2 Exploring Data with Graphs Learn …. The Different Types of Data The Use of Graphs to Describe Data Section 2.1 What are the Types of Data? In Every Statistical Study: Questions are posed Characteristics are observed Characteristics are Variables

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Lesson 2 Exploring Data with Graphs

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Lesson 2 exploring data with graphs l.jpg

Lesson 2Exploring Data with Graphs

  • Learn ….

    The Different Types of Data

    The Use of Graphs to Describe

    Data


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Section 2.1

What are the Types of Data?


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In Every Statistical Study:

  • Questions are posed

  • Characteristics are observed


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Characteristics are Variables

A Variable is any characteristic that is recorded for subjects in the study


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Variation in Data

  • The terminology variablehighlights the fact that data values vary.


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Example: Students in a Statistics Class

  • Variables:

    • Age

    • GPA

    • Major

    • Smoking Status


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Data values are called observations

  • Each observation can be:

    • Quantitative

    • Categorical


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Categorical Variable

  • Each observation belongs to one of a set of categories

  • Examples:

    • Gender (Male or Female)

    • Religious Affiliation (Catholic, Jewish, …)

    • Place of residence (Apt, Condo, …)

    • Belief in Life After Death (Yes or No)


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Quantitative Variable

  • Observations take numerical values

  • Examples:

    • Age

    • Number of siblings

    • Annual Income

    • Number of years of education completed


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Graphs and Numerical Summaries

  • Describe the main features of a variable

  • For Quantitative variables: key features are center and spread

  • For Categorical variables: key feature is the percentage in each of the categories


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Quantitative Variables

  • Discrete Quantitative Variables

    and

  • Continuous Quantitative Variables


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Discrete

  • A quantitative variable is discrete if its possible values form a set of separate numbers such as 0, 1, 2, 3, …


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Examples of discrete variables

  • Number of pets in a household

  • Number of children in a family

  • Number of foreign languages spoken


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Continuous

  • A quantitative variable is continuous if its possible values form an interval


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Examples of Continuous Variables

  • Height

  • Weight

  • Age

  • Amount of time it takes to complete an assignment


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Frequency Table

  • A method of organizing data

  • Lists all possible values for a variable along with the number of observations for each value


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Example: Shark Attacks


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Example: Shark Attacks

Example: Shark Attacks

  • What is the variable?

  • Is it categorical or quantitative?

  • How is the proportion for Florida calculated?

  • How is the % for Florida calculated?


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Example: Shark Attacks

  • Insights – what the data tells us about shark attacks


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Identify the following variable as categorical or quantitative:

Choice of diet

(vegetarian or non-vegetarian):

  • Categorical

  • Quantitative


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Identify the following variable as categorical or quantitative:

Number of people you have known who have been elected to political office:

  • Categorical

  • Quantitative


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Identify the following variable as discrete or continuous:

The number of people in line at a box office to purchase theater tickets:

  • Continuous

  • Discrete


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Identify the following variable as discrete or continuous:

The weight of a dog:

  • Continuous

  • Discrete


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Section 2.2

How Can We Describe Data Using Graphical Summaries?


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Graphs for Categorical Data

  • Pie Chart: A circle having a “slice of pie” for each category

  • Bar Graph: A graph that displays a vertical bar for each category


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Example: Sources of Electricity Use in the U.S. and Canada


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Pie Chart


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Bar Chart


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Pie Chart vs. Bar Chart

  • Which graph do you prefer?

  • Why?


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