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Comparative Politics of Developing Nations Week 3 (October 16) Roadmap: Colonialism Reaction papers Exams format Final papers Readings next week (update) Current events (Grameen Bank) Pictures I. Colonialism (Clapham & Isbister readings) Colonialism: End: economic Means: technology

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Roadmap:

  • Colonialism

  • Reaction papers

  • Exams format

  • Final papers

  • Readings next week (update)

  • Current events (Grameen Bank)

  • Pictures


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I. Colonialism (Clapham & Isbister readings)

  • Colonialism:

    • End: economic

    • Means: technology

  • Sequence of colonization: a function of richness & weakness/access

    • Americas: rich and easy to control

    • Asia: rich, harder to control

    • Africa: no obvious wealth, hard access



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Nationalism: Africa vs. Middle East

  • Africa: divisions (ethnic, religious)

  • Middle East: unifying effect of ethnicity (Pan Arabism) and religion (Islam)


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Colonial government:

  • Creation of new boundaries

  • Creation of a new political order and administration

    → Colonial administration: authoritarian and centralized

    → Post-colonial administration:

    * rulers: inherit the sense of superiority of the colonial power

    * ruled: continue to view the state as an alien imposition


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Rule: Direct (French) vs. Indirect (British):

  • What are the consequences for post-colonial governments?

  • Generally speaking, British ex-colonies are more democratic than non-British ex-colonies (e.g., French)


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Colonialism: Clapham vs. Isbister

  • What was the main reason behind colonial expansion?

  • ……?

  • The culture/legacy of colonialism:

    • Language

    • Religion


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Exams format:

  • Concept definition

  • Human Development Index (HDI):“A composite measure of life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy rate and per capita income used to evaluate living standards.”

  • Third World:“A category of nations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that share two primary characteristics: they are politically and/or economically less developed; and they are neither industrialized democracies (the First World) nor former members of the Soviet-Eastern European bloc of communist nations (the second world). The term “Third World” is used interchangeably with “developing nations” and “less developing countries (LDCs).”


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Short questions

  • What are the various labels or collective names that scholars use for the approximately 140 countries we are studying in this class? Why do they have such a hard time finding an appropriate label (i.e., one that would be uncontroversial and universally accepted)?


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  • Explain why, in most cases, there is a correlation between economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Is income per capita the best measure of development and the well-being of people living in a society? Why (or why not)?

  • What is the Human Development Index? What does it do? How?


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Multiple choice economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • In his discussion of critiques of modernization theory, Handelman mentions Samuel Huntington as an example of _____________________________:

  • a) A liberal critique

  • b) A conservative critique

  • c) A libertarian critique

  • d) A post-modern critique


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V. Next week readings economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Out:Collier, Paul, and Jan Willem Gunning. 1999. “Why Has Africa Grown Slowly?”

  • In:

  • The Economist. 2006. “The real digital divide.” Annual Editions: Developing World 2006/2007 (pp. 90-91).

  • Foreign Policy. 2006. “Ranking the Rich 2004.” AE (pp. 73-79).

  • Marglin, Stephen A. 2006. “Development as Poison: Rethinking the Western Model of Modernity.” AE (pp. 21-25).

  • Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2006. “The Development Challenge.” AE (pp. 5-10).


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Current events? economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Grameen Bank

  • Who? Muhammad Yunus

  • Where? the village of Jobra, Bangladesh (1976)

  • A loan of $27 to a group of 43 families

  • Results:

    • US$ 5.72 billion disbursed

    • 6.61 million borrowers; 97 percent women

    • over 250,000 “telephone ladies”

    • “Beggars As Members” (over 81,000)


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Final papers guidelines: economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Ten to twenty pages long

  • (3,000 to 6,000 words)

  • Double-spaced, default margins, Times New Roman 12 fonts

  • Bibliography + appendices + notes - do not count toward the limit

  • Most likely, topics will be relativelyopen-ended


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Topics I: economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Prospects for democracy in Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia

    • How democratic is each of these countries?

    • What factors account for their (relative) level of democracy?

    • I.e., if A is more democratic than B, why?

    • Think of prospects for democracy (20 yrs)

    • Do you expect any significant changes?

    • Why? (or why not)?


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Topics I (cont.): economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Democracy in Romania in comparative perspective

    • Choose four countries: one from L. America, one from Asia/Middle East, one from Africa, and one from EE/fSU (other than Romania)

    • The “most similar case” to Romania (in terms of the variables that you think are most important for democracy)

    • Justify your choices. How democratic is each of these countries? Is the outcome the expected one in each case? Why (or why not)?


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Topics I (cont.): economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Modernization theory, dependency theory, and globalization: lessons for Romanian policy-makers and scholars

    • How well do modernization theory and dependency theory explain Romania’s pre-1989 economic, social and political course?

    • What about its post-1989 trajectory?

    • What about its future path?


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Topics I (cont.): economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • Institutional design and political consequences: Romania, 1990-2006

    • Discuss the impact of political institutions - executive-legislative relations, electoral system (+any other institutional feature)

    • Positives and negatives; give overall assessment

    • What institutional changes would you see as beneficial?

    • How do you see the post-1991 changes?

    • With the benefit of hindsight, if you were a decision-maker in 1989-91, what, if anything, would you do differently?


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Topics II: economic, social and political development. On the other hand, explain in what circumstances they are not correlated, and why.

  • “Islamic Fundamentalism versus Zionism”

  • Comparative analysis of post-Soviet development in Central Asia

  • “National Culture and Economic Performance”

  • "Aging Policies and Living Arrangements“

  • P-S-E Developments in Afghanistan and Iraq

  • Theories of imperialism and colonialism & impact on developing nations


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