National organization on fetal alcohol syndrome
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National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome . Erin Frey, MD. NOFAS FASD K-12 PREVENTION CURRICULUM. LESSON PLANS. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. First described in 1973 Definition

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National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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National organization on fetal alcohol syndrome

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Erin Frey, MD


Nofas fasd k 12 prevention curriculum

NOFAS FASD K-12 PREVENTION CURRICULUM

LESSON PLANS


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders fasd

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)


Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • First described in 1973

  • Definition

    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the term given to a set of physical, mental and neurobehavioral birth defects caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy


2005 surgeon general s updated recommendations

2005 Surgeon General’s Updated Recommendations:

  • Women who are pregnant should not drink.

  • A woman who has already consumed alcohol during pregnancy should stop to avoid further risks.

  • Women who are at risk for or are trying to become pregnant should not consume alcohol.

  • Health professionals should work with all women of child bearing age to reduce risk.


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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

FASARNDPFAS

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome –only term diagnosed by health care providers

Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder


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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) represents only the “tip of the iceberg” relative to allalcohol-related effects


Fasd by the numbers

FASD By The Numbers

  • 1% of all births (40,000 newborns each year).

  • Lifetime cost for one individual with FAS is at least $2 million.

  • Cost to the nation up to $6 billion each year for FAS alone.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    2007


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All Alcohol-Related Effects

US Census Bureau


Alcohol is a teratogen

Alcohol is a Teratogen

  • An agent that interrupts or alters the normal development of the fetus

  • “Of all the substances of abuse (including cocaine, heroin and marijuana), alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral effects in the fetus.”

    Institute of Medicine, 1996


Manifestations of cns dysfunction associated with fas

Manifestations of CNS Dysfunction Associated with FAS

  • Attention/memory problems

  • Hyperactivity

  • Learning disabilities

  • Behavior Problems

  • Microcephaly

  • Language & speech problems

  • Altered muscle tone

  • Poor fine & gross motor coordination

  • Mental retardation


Fasd through the life span school issues and concerns

FASD Through the Life SpanSchool Issues and Concerns


Developmental overview early school age

Developmental OverviewEarly School Age

  • Continued sleep problems

  • Making and keeping friends

  • Reading social cues

  • Boundary issues

  • Doesn’t understand stranger safety

  • Easily frustrated/tantrums

  • Understanding cause/effect relationships

  • Language/Speech

  • low receptivity/high fluency

  • Math problems (time/money)


Developmental overview school age

Developmental OverviewSchool Age

  • Attention and memory problems

  • Learning problems (especially arithmetic)

  • Uninhibited/impulsive

  • Distractible

  • Lack of organizational skills

  • Developmental delays

  • Poor coordination


Fas developmental overview adolescence and adults

FAS Developmental OverviewAdolescence and Adults

  • Anxiety and depression

  • Lying and Stealing

  • Antisocial behavior

  • Poor judgment

  • Mood swings

  • Naïve - victimization

  • Socially inappropriate behaviors


Fas adolescents adults clinical implications

FAS Adolescents & AdultsClinical Implications

  • Poor judgment…………………easily victimized

  • Attention deficits………….unfocused/distractible

  • Arithmetic disability……….can’t handle money

  • Memory problems….......doesn’t learn from experience

  • Difficultly abstracting……..doesn’t understand consequences

  • Disoriented in time and space….fails to perceive social cues

  • Poor frustration tolerance……..quick to anger


Potential secondary disabilities

Potential “Secondary Disabilities”

  • Early school drop-out

  • Alcohol and drug abuse problems

  • Having children they can’t care for

  • Joblessness

  • Trouble with law

  • Mental health problems

  • Premature death


Why teach about fasd

Why Teach About FASD

  • Providing age appropriate education before conception can help reduce the risk of alcohol-exposed births.

  • Schools exercise a powerful influence over young people, making them ideal settings to educate about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy

  • Alcohol remains the number one drug of choice among the Nation’s youth


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  • Approximately 20% of sexually active teenage girls (15-19) become pregnant each year in the U.S.

  • In 2004, the rate of past month binge drinking among pregnant women age 15 to 17 (8.8%) was more than twice that of pregnant women ate 26 to 44 (3.8%).

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    2007


K 12 lesson plans

K-12 Lesson Plans

  • What Teachers Need to Know

    • Learning about Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

    • Signs and Symptoms of FASD

    • Common Identifiable Facial Features of FAS


K 12 lesson plans1

K-12 Lesson Plans

  • Sensitivity Caution

    • Discussing alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) with students

  • Family Letter

  • 12 Steps to Success For Students With FASD.

  • Strategies for School Staff

  • Websites and Resources


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National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Educating the public, professionals and policymakers about alcohol use during pregnancy

and supporting children and families living with the disorder

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Educating the public, professionals and policymakers about alcohol use during pregnancy

and supporting children and families living with the disorder

FASD: What Everyone Should Know

FASD: What Everyone Should Know

Alcohol use during pregnancy is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects in the United States.

FASD affects an estimated 40,000 infants each year - more than Spina Bifida, Down Syndrome and Muscular Dystrophy combined.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)is anumbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects can include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not intended for use as a clinical diagnosis. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) are terms used to describe the range of conditions associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. An FAS diagnosis indicates the most serious set of birth defects, including growth deficiency (physical), central nervous system dysfunction (mental or brain damage) and a characteristic set of facial dysmorphology or malformations.

Who is at Risk?

Any woman of childbearing age is at risk of having a child with an FASD if she drinks alcohol during her pregnancy. Alcohol can harm an embryo or fetus at any time, even before a woman knows she is pregnant. Many women drink early in pregnancy but stop drinking when they learn they are pregnant. Others cannot stop drinking without help. Women who have given birth to children with an FASD and continue to drink are at very high risk of having additional children with an FASD.

  • What Are the Effects of FASD?

  • Depending on the timing and frequency of maternal alcohol consumption outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure may include:

  • Specific facial dysmorphology

  • Growth deficits

  • Brain damage including mental retardation

  • Heart, lung, and kidney defects

  • Hyperactivity and behavior problems

  • Attention and memory problems

  • Poor coordination or motor skill delays

  • Difficulty with judgment and reasoning

  • Learning disabilities

  • “Of all the substances of abuse (including cocaine, heroin and marijuana), alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral effects in the fetus.”Institute of Medicine, 1996.

  • FASD also takes an enormous financial toll on affected families and society as a whole. Less than one-third of individuals affected prenatally by alcohol have the full FAS, yet FAS alone costs the United States $5.4 billion annually in direct and indirect costs. This is only a small portion of the total societal costs associated with FASD.

  • How Can FASD Be Prevented?

  • While there is no cure for FASD, it is 100 percent preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol. NOFAS prevents FASD by raising public awareness, training practitioners to screen women for alcohol disorders and teaching youth to make healthy choices, among many other strategies.

Alcohol use during pregnancy is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects in the United States.

FASD affects an estimated 40,000 infants each year - more than Spina Bifida, Down Syndrome and Muscular Dystrophy combined.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)is anumbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects can include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not intended for use as a clinical diagnosis. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) are terms used to describe the range of conditions associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. An FAS diagnosis indicates the most serious set of birth defects, including growth deficiency (physical), central nervous system dysfunction (mental or brain damage) and a characteristic set of facial dysmorphology or malformations.

Who is at Risk?

Any woman of childbearing age is at risk of having a child with an FASD if she drinks alcohol during her pregnancy. Alcohol can harm an embryo or fetus at any time, even before a woman knows she is pregnant. Many women drink early in pregnancy but stop drinking when they learn they are pregnant. Others cannot stop drinking without help. Women who have given birth to children with an FASD and continue to drink are at very high risk of having additional children with an FASD.

  • What Are the Effects of FASD?

  • Depending on the timing and frequency of maternal alcohol consumption outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure may include:

  • Specific facial dysmorphology

  • Growth deficits

  • Brain damage including mental retardation

  • Heart, lung, and kidney defects

  • Hyperactivity and behavior problems

  • Attention and memory problems

  • Poor coordination or motor skill delays

  • Difficulty with judgment and reasoning

  • Learning disabilities

  • “Of all the substances of abuse (including cocaine, heroin and marijuana), alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral effects in the fetus.”Institute of Medicine, 1996.

  • FASD also takes an enormous financial toll on affected families and society as a whole. Less than one-third of individuals affected prenatally by alcohol have the full FAS, yet FAS alone costs the United States $5.4 billion annually in direct and indirect costs. This is only a small portion of the total societal costs associated with FASD.

  • How Can FASD Be Prevented?

  • While there is no cure for FASD, it is 100 percent preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol. NOFAS prevents FASD by raising public awareness, training practitioners to screen women for alcohol disorders and teaching youth to make healthy choices, among many other strategies.

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida

Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome

FASD

FASD

Normal Brain FAS Affected Brain

Normal Brain FAS Affected Brain

Harwood, Am. J. Med, Genet. 2002

Harwood, Am. J. Med, Genet. 2002

900 17th Street ▪ Suite 910 ▪ Washington, DC 20006 ▪ Phone: 202-785-4585 ▪ 1-800-66-NOFAS ▪ E-mail: [email protected]

900 17th Street ▪ Suite 910 ▪ Washington, DC 20006 ▪ Phone: 202-785-4585 ▪ 1-800-66-NOFAS ▪ E-mail: [email protected]


K 12 curriculum ef 7

K-2


Skill emphasis health education standard

Skill Emphasis/Health Education Standard

  • Standard 2 – Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology and other factors on health behaviors.

    • 2.2.1. Identify how the family influences personal health practices and behaviors

  • Standard 8 – Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

    • 8.2.1. Make requests to promote personal health.

    • 8.2.2. Encourage peers to make positive health choices.


  • Teaching steps

    Teaching Steps

    • Read the Story

      Read the Karli and the Star of the Week book to students.


    Karli and the star of the week

    Karli and the Star of the Week

    • A colorfully illustrated story book that teaches youth to be tolerant and accepting of all individuals regardless of their capabilities or disabilities.

    • 31 Pages


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    • Discussion and Group Activity

      • Ask students what they think about the story.

      • Ask students to recall the disorder, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, discussed in story.

      • Ask students to think of something special about themselves

      • Ask students to think of something special about someone else and one of their classmates

      • Ask students to share something they need help with


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    • Conclusion – Poem


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    3-5


    Skill emphasis health education standard1

    Skill Emphasis/Health Education Standard

    • Standard 1 – Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

      • 1.5.1. – Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.

      • 1.5.2. – Identify examples of emotional, intellectual, physical, and social health.

  • Standard 5 – Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.

    • 5.5.1. – Identify health related situations that might require a thoughtful decision.

    • 5.5.3. – List healthy options to health related issues or problems.

    • 5.5.5. – Choose a healthy option when making a decision.


  • K 12 curriculum ef 7

    • Standard 7 – Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.

      • 7.5.1. – Identify responsible personal health behaviors.

      • 7.5.2. – Demonstrate a variety of healthy practices and behaviors to maintain or improve personal health.

      • 7.5.3. – Demonstrate a variety of behaviors to avoid or reduce health risks.

    • Standard 8 – Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family and community health.

      • 8.5.1. – Express opinions and give accurate information about health issues

      • 8.5.2. – Encourage others to make positive health choices.


    Teaching steps1

    Teaching Steps

    • Nutrition and Health Choices

    • Harmful Substances

    • Nutrition and Human Development

    • Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs (ATOD) on the Developing Fetus

    • Discuss Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders


    Activity 1 choices for a healthier life

    Activity #1 – CHOICES FOR A HEALTHIER LIFE

    Grade 3


    Activity 2 healthier living word search

    Activity #2 – Healthier Living Word Search

    Grade 4


    Activity 3 healthier living crossword puzzle

    Activity #3 – Healthier Living Crossword Puzzle

    Grade 4 or 5


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    6-8


    Skill emphasis health education standard2

    Skill Emphasis/Health Education Standard

    • Standard 5 – Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision making skills to enhance health

      • 5.8.1. – Identify circumstances that can help or hinder healthy decision making.

      • 5.8.6. – Choose healthy alternatives over unhealthy alternatives when making a decision.

    • Standard 7 – Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce risks.

      • 7.8.2. – Demonstrate healthy practices and behaviors that will maintain or improve the health of self and others.

      • 7.8.3. – Demonstrate behaviors to avoid or reduce health risks to self and others.


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    • Standard 8 – Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

      • 8.8.1. – State a health enhancing position on a topic and support it with accurate information.

      • 8.8.2. – Demonstrate how to influence and support others to make positive health choices.


    Teaching steps2

    Teaching Steps

    • Define Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

    • How Common is FASD?

    • Reinforce A Strong No-Use Message

    • Describe How FASD Can Affect the Brain

    • What Are the Symptoms of FASD?


    Activity 1 short term memory challenge

    Activity #1 – Short-Term Memory Challenge

    In Class Activity


    Activity 2 fasd community advocacy project

    Activity #2 – FASD Community Advocacy Project

    Long-Term Assignment


    Activity 3 question and answer

    Activity #3 – Question and Answer

    In Class Activity


    Activity 4 how much do you know about alcohol and pregnancy

    Activity #4 – How Much Do You Know About Alcohol and Pregnancy?

    In Class or Take Home Activity Sheet or Quiz


    Activity 5 brain structure and function identification exercise

    Activity #5 – Brain Structure and Function Identification Exercise

    In Class Activity or Homework


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    9-12


    Skill emphasis health education standard3

    Skill Emphasis/Health Education Standard

    • Standard 1 – Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health

      • 1.12.1. – Predict how health behaviors can impact health status

      • 1.12.4. – Analyze how genetics and family history can impact personal Health

    • Standard 4 – Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.

      • 4.12.1. – Utilize skills for communication effectively with family, peers, and others to enhance health.

      • 4.12.2. – Demonstrate refusal, negotiation, and collaboration skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    • Standard 5 – Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.

      • 5.12.1. Examine barriers that can hinder healthy decision making.

      • 5.12.2. – Determine the value of applying a thoughtful decision making process in health related situations.

      • 5.12.7. – Evaluate the effectiveness of health-related decisions.

    • Standard 7 – Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce risks.

      • 7.12.1. – Analyze the role of individual responsibility for enhancing health

      • 7.12.3. – Demonstrate a variety of behaviors to avoid or reduce health risks to self and others.

    • Standard 8 – Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family and community health.

      • 8.12.2. – Demonstrate how to influence and support others to make positive health choices.

      • 8.12.3. – Work cooperatively as an advocate for improving personal, family and community health.


    Teaching steps3

    Teaching Steps

    • Define Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

    • How Common Is FASD?

    • Reinforce A Strong No-Use Message

    • What Is Considered A Drink?

    • What Role Do Partners, Friends and Family Members Play?

    • View the Law & Order: SVU Video


    Activity 1 discuss the video

    Activity #1 – Discuss the Video

    Classroom Activity


    Activity 2 alternative ending to law order svu video

    Activity #2 – Alternative Ending To Law & Order: SVU Video

    Homework Assignment


    Activity 3 alcohol and pregnancy decision making

    Activity #3 – Alcohol and Pregnancy Decision Making

    Case Studies


    Activity 4 how much do you know about alcohol and pregnancy1

    Activity #4 – How Much Do You Know About Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Activity Sheet/Quiz


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    Alcohol-Related

    Birth Defects 100% are preventable

    You can help educate a new generation and keep them free from alcohol exposed pregnancies.


    K 12 curriculum ef 7

    Erin Frey, MD

    Program Director

    National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome900 17th Street NW, Suite 910Washington, D.C. 20006Phone: 202.785.4585 ext. 203Fax: [email protected]


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