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Japan Unit VI Geography Unit VI Japan’s General Geography It is located 110 miles east of Korea It is an archipelago, or a chain of islands. It is about the size of California in terms of area. People tended to settle in the river valleys and coastal plains.

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Japan

Unit VI


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Geography

Unit VI


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Japan’s General Geography

It is located 110 miles east of Korea

It is an archipelago, or a chain of islands.

It is about the size of California in terms of area.

People tended to settle in the river valleys and coastal plains.

The land of Japan is so mountainous, that only about 20% of it is suitable for farming. Similarly to Korea, Japan relied heavily on the sea for food.


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Culture

Unit VI


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Japanese Proverbs To Ponder

Beginning is easy – Continuing is hard

When the character of a man is not clear to you, look at his friends.

Fall down seven times, get up eight.


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People of Japan

Japan is a homogeneous society – they speak the same language & share the same culture

Have almost zero ethnic minorities

Isolation has shaped its views of the world

Their “special identity” = ethnocentrism

Rarely grant citizenship to immigrants


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Cultural Diffusion

Japanese culture is based on chinese culture in many ways

Korea was the cultural bridge between China and Japan

The Japanese based their government on Chinese ideas

Confucian and Buddhist beliefs come from china.

Peasants adopted Chinese farming techniques



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Early History

  • 400 A.D. Tenno Clan is the first and only ruling dynasty

  • Heian Court - 794

  • By the 800’s Emperor power was declining

  • The Fujiwara family ruled for 200 years – The Emperor became a figure head – carried out religious duties, but had no real power

  • 1100’s – Warrior families challenged the Heian Court


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Feudalism

Unit VI


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Japanese Feudalism

Japanese Feudalism – Landowning warriors known as samurai pledged their allegiance to lords known as daimyos, and fought to protect their lands.



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Is Japanese Feudalism like Chess?

Japanese Feudalism

The Game of Chess

The King

The Queen

The Rook

The Knight

The Bishop

The Pawn

  • The Emperor

  • The Shogun

  • The Daimyo

  • The Samurai

  • The Artisans

  • The Peasants


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Frequent Warfare

Theory: Shogun commanded complete loyalty of his lords

Actuality – samurai lords and followers battled for power with the shogun

By 1400 Japan was inundated in warfare


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Achieving Unity

1500’s several military leaders were looking to unite Japan

Hideyoshi – most successful

By 1590 – had brought Japan under his control

Was the foundation for a united Japan

Centralized feudalism – 1600’s Tokugawa Ieyasu – set up the Tokugawa Shogunate – lasted until 1868

Under this system shoguns created a peaceful and ordinary society

Daimyo fell under direct control of the shogun


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Isolation

Unit VI


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An Isolated Nation

1543 – Portuguese arrived in Japan

Brought missionaries – infuriated the shogun

Early 1600’s – began persecuting foreign missionaries

Led to and expulsion of foreigners

1639 – shogun closed Japan to the world

Any Japanese who left could not return

Outlawed the building of ocean going vessels


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1639 -1853: Over 200 Years of Isolation

  • The shogun closed Japan to the rest of the world in the effort to remain powerful. In 1639 all foreigners (European and Asian traders) were expelled; Christianity was banned and all missionaries were expelled.

  • The people of Japan were forbidden to have contact with foreigners and were not allowed to travel outside of the country.

  • Foreign trade was banned.


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Economic & Social Changes

Edo grew from a small fishing village to a bustling city - present day Tokyo

Roads and trade increased as the Daimyo traveled to and from Edo

During peaceful times the samurai no longer needed to fight

Became government officials and bankers

By early 1800’s the Japanese had become a peaceful unified nation



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Commodore Perry Arrives

1853 – American warships anchored in Tokyo Bay

The Commander demanded that Japan open its ports

Under this pressure, Japan opened its doors for the first time in 200 years

Treaty of Kanagawa – officially opens Japan to trade with the U.S.



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Meiji Restoration--1868-1912

  • The samurai were angry that the shogun had signed a treaty with foreigners because they were afraid that foreigners would take over Japan.

  • The samurai forced the shogun to resign, and they supported the Meiji emperor as ruler.

  • This was called the restoration because the emperor was restored to power. He had been only a figurehead while the shoguns were in power.


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Meiji Restoration--1868-1912

  • The New Government’s policy was to embrace everything that was Western and modern.

  • They embraced Democracy

  • 1871 - Iwakura Mission

    • Trip to Europe and America to learn their technology, government, and education system.


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Meiji Restoration--1868-1912

  • Experts from Europe and North America taught the Japanese about factories, steam power, railroads, electricity and many other inventions.

  • The Japanese began huge manufacturing industries to produce textiles, steel, locomotives and ships.

  • The Japanese built a Western-style education system modeled on those in Europe and North America.

  • The Japanese citizens were happy with the new technology, industry and education system. They were enthusiastic about anything Western.


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Militarism & Expansion

Unit VI


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Early Japanese Expansion

Japan Becomes A Global Power





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(1931) Manchurian Incident

Japanese army officers blew up tracks on Japanese owned railroad line in Manchuria, China.

Claimed the Chinese had done it.

In “self defense”, the Japanese attacked Chinese forces.

Military did not consult their own government and acted independently.

Public opinion in Japan was supportive of retaliation and takeover.


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Rape of Nanking

  • (1937) Japan invaded the Chinese mainland in Nanjing (China’s capital at the time)What took place over the next year is one of the largest crimes against humanity in history!

  • Japanese Army committed numerous atrocities, such as looting, arson, rape, and murder.

  • Japanese killed civilians because they claimed they were soldiers disguised as civilians.

  • Classified documents released in 2007 show the death toll at 800,000.



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World War II

Unit VI


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World War II

  • World War II began in Europe in 1939. On Dec. 7,1941, the Japanese airforce attacked the American navy station at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This resulted in America and Japan being at war with each other.



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Just Some of the Events of WWII

  • Pearl Harbor

  • Bataan Death March

  • Battle of Midway

  • Oregon Bombing

  • Guadalcanal

  • Okinawa

  • Iwo Jima

  • Philippines

  • Atomic Bombs Dropped


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The End of WWII

  • In 1945 (August 6th), the American military dropped the world's first atomic bomb on Hiroshima (175,000 died).

  • On August 9th, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki (70,000 died).

  • On August 15th, 1945, Emperor Hirohito declared the war to be over, and made a plea to the Japanese people in a radio broadcast to give up their weapons.


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Nagasaki Before the Atomic Bomb is dropped

Nagasaki After the Atomic Bomb is dropped


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Military Tribunal of the Far East 1946

  • “Haven’t you ever heard of Perry? Tokugawa Japan believed in isolation; it didn’t want to have any thing to do with other countries and had its doors locked tightly. Then along came Perry from your country in 1853 in his black ships to open those doors; he aimed his big guns at Japan and warned, if you don’t deal with us, look out for these; open your doors, and negotiate with other countries, it learned that all those countries were a fearfully aggressive lot. And so for its own defense it took your country as its teacher and set about learning how to be aggressive. You might say we became your disciples. Why don’t you subpoena Perry from the other world and try him as a war criminal?”



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Japan Post WWII

  • American Shogun – Name given to Gen Macarthur

  • Democratization – Forcing Japan to change from a dictatorship to a democracy

  • Occupation – Foreign troops on another’s land or territory

  • Economic Miracle – Japanese Industry is rebuilt with U.S. assistance

  • Pacifism – Anti-war policy


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How the Japanese Economy Succeeded

  • Japan adapted the latest western technology to its own industry.

  • Japan had a well-educated and highly skilled work force.

  • Japanese savings gave banks capital to invest in industry.

  • The government, prohibited from spending money on defense, poured funds into the economy.

  • The government imposed high tariffs and strict regulations to limit foreign competition.


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Japan Today

Unit VI




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