Imported tuna and impact to hawaii fish market
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Imported Tuna and Impact to Hawaii Fish Market. Minling Pan, Ph.D. Timothy Ming Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center September 29, 2004. Research Background. Imported tuna has increased recently and competes with local fishing industry (based on industrial observations)

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Imported tuna and impact to hawaii fish market

Imported Tuna and Impact to Hawaii Fish Market

Minling Pan, Ph.D.

Timothy Ming

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

September 29, 2004


Research background

Research Background

  • Imported tuna has increased recently and competes with local fishing industry (based on industrial observations)

    …First look at foreign trade to Honolulu


Types of imported tunas to honolulu 1989 2003 average

Types of Imported Tunas to Honolulu(1989-2003 Average)

  • Data Sources: U.S Customs

  • Direct imports from foreign countries

  • 57% of imported tunas were fresh


Fresh imported tunas to honolulu 1989 2003

Fresh Imported Tunas to Honolulu (1989-2003)

  • Among fresh imported tunas, mainly yellowfin & bigeye

  • Declined since 1993 (except 2001 & 2002 went up)


Hawaii tuna landings 1989 2003

Hawaii Tuna Landings (1989-2003)


Frozen imported tuna to honolulu 1989 2003

Frozen Imported Tuna to Honolulu (1989-2003)

  • Among frozen tunas, only small % of yellowfin/bigeye, mainly skipjack

  • Imports declined since 1990, only one high year (2001) for yellowfin & bigeye


What was causing the increase of imported tunas in local markets

What was causing the increase of imported tunas in local markets?

  • Frozen yellowfin used for “poke” and “sashimi”

    • cube (poke)

    • steak or fillet (sashimi)

  • Foreign owned ocean containers ships do not stop in Honolulu (Johnson Act)

  • Imported tunas transshipped to Honolulu from Los Angeles, and San Francisco through Matson or Sealand container ships


Frozen yellowfin bigeye imports to la 1989 2003

Frozen Yellowfin/Bigeye Imports to LA (1989-2003)

  • Imported frozen yellowfin/bigeye increased to LA

  • Up from nearly 0 to 3 million lbs


Frozen yellowfin bigeye to sfs

Frozen Yellowfin/Bigeye to SFS

Increase from 0 to half million pounds within 5 years


Frozen yellowfin treated by tasteless smoke ts

Frozen Yellowfin Treated by Tasteless Smoke (TS)

  • The basic ingredient of TS is carbon monoxide (CO)

    • $0.20/lb for TS treatment

  • Frozen cube/sashimi steak

  • Price on Hawaii wholesale market

    $3.50/lb for cube

    $7.00/lb for sashimi steak


Co ts product history

CO/TS Product History

  • Japan producers began using CO to treat tuna 15 years ago

  • U.S. received first shipment of CO treated tuna in early 90s

  • 1996 a patent of using CO technique was granted in US

    • filtered-wood-smoke

  • 1999 a patent for tasteless smoke (TS) claimed by Hawaii International Seafood Inc. was granted

    • burning an organic, food grade smoking material

    • smoking in low °C

    • frozen tuna can stored for one year

  • 2000 USFDA approved TS as “generally regarded as safe”

    • Tasteless smoke (preservative to promote color retention)

    • Treated with carbon monoxide (preservative to promote color retention)


Recent development of co treated seafood

Recent Development of CO Treated Seafood

  • 1999 Japan banned the use of CO to treat tuna but allowed it for other seafood

  • Canada and European countries also banned CO treated seafood

  • About 20-30 containers (40’) of TS treated frozen tuna imported into the US monthly (IntraFish Industry Report, 2003)

    • 7 – 10 million lbs a year to U.S.


Impact to local markets

Impact to Local Markets

  • Data problem--no official statistics on total imports

    • Transshipments

    • Harmonized System (HS) code: no clear code for TS treated tuna

  • Consumer ignorance on the TS/CO treated products


A pilot study on consumer knowledge for ahi poke

A PILOT STUDY ON CONSUMER KNOWLEDGEFOR AHIPOKE


Background

BACKGROUND

  • Assumptions

    • Local consumers of ahi poke exhibit an ignorance towards the Tasteless Smoke product

      • Purchasing TS products without knowing what it is (ambiguous labeling; traditionally, local supply dominates)

      • The active ingredients as well as the effects of Tasteless Smoke are unknown to local consumers

    • Local consumers value the quality of fresh local ahi over previously frozen Tasteless Smoke treated ahi and are willing to pay a higher price for the local fresh


A pilot study

A PILOT STUDY

  • Purpose of this pilot study

    • To test the assumptions (if further study is needed)

    • To field-test the questionnaires

  • Method of pilot study

    • Survey

    • Convenience Sampling

      • Sample size of 62 (31 respondents from National Marine Fisheries Services affiliated and 31 respondents non-NMFS affiliated)


Retail market report how common ts is in our markets

Retail Market Report“How common TS is in our markets”

Table based on visitations on June 22, 2004


Popularity of ts treated ahi poke in local markets

Popularity of TS treated Ahi Poke in Local Markets

  • Two dollars difference between TS/CO treated and local fresh Ahi Poke

    • Holiday price is even lower: Ahi Poke $4.99/lb

  • Long shelf life of TS/CO treated Ahi Poke

    • Constant & adjustable supply

    • “Freshly made”

  • Consumer may not be aware of the differences in the two products


Preliminary results of survey

How Much Do You Pay For Your Ahi Poke?

6

None

2

Varies

Price (Per Pound)

26

$7.00-$10.99

28

$4.00-$6.99

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Number of Respondents

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SURVEY

Price is an indicator of the presence of consumption for Tasteless Smoke Ahi Poke


Preliminary results of survey1

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SURVEY

About 77% consumers claim that they have not purchased Tasteless Smoke treated products before


Preliminary results of survey2

What Kind Of Color Do You Look For In

Determining Ahi Meat Quality

30

25

20

15

Number of

Respondents

24

10

19

5

0

0

0

Watermelon red

Different shades

Brown

Black

of red

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SURVEY

The choice of color in Ahi Poke is a determinant of consumer ignorance for Tasteless Smoke product


Preliminary results of survey3

Do You Know That the Active Ingredient in TS is

CO?

47

No

15

Yes

0

10

20

30

40

50

Number of Respondents

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SURVEY

Most respondents did not realize that carbon monoxide is an active ingredient of Tasteless Smoke


Preliminary results of survey4

Most respondents did not know that carbon monoxide intensifies the red color of Ahi meat

Do You Know How CO Affects Muscle Protein?

No

49

Yes

13

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Number of Respondents

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SURVEY


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

  • Further study is needed to determine the consumer knowledge and preferences for TS versus fresh tunas

    • Improvequestionnaire design

    • Propersampling

    • Conjoint analysis

      Determining the value people would pay for local fresh or TS/CO treated (previously frozen) Ahi Poke

  • Monitoring Transshipments


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