Detecting complements and adjuncts
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Detecting Complements and Adjuncts. Rajat Kumar Mohanty Center for Indian Language Technology IIT Bombay. Outline. X-bar Theory Revisited Complement and Adjuncts within an NP Detecting Complements and Adjuncts Structural Ambiguity Phrase Structure Rules for Noun Phrases

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Detecting Complements and Adjuncts

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Detecting complements and adjuncts

Detecting Complements and Adjuncts

Rajat Kumar Mohanty

Center for Indian Language Technology

IIT Bombay


Outline

Outline

  • X-bar Theory Revisited

  • Complement and Adjuncts within an NP

  • Detecting Complements and Adjuncts

    • Structural Ambiguity

    • Phrase Structure Rules for Noun Phrases

    • Reordering of Adjuncts

    • Co-ordination

    • Extraposition

    • Preposing

    • Co-occurrence Restrictions

  • Generalization

  • Exercises

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X bar theory

X-bar Theory

  • It tells us how words are combined to make phrases and sentences.

  • It captures the commonality between different types of phrases, which PS-rules cannot.

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X bar projection

X-bar Projection

XP

(Maximal projection)

(Intermediate projection)

X `

YP

X

(Minimal projection)

ZP

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X bar projection1

X-bar Projection

XP

(X-phrase)

YP

(Specifier)

X `

X

(Head)

ZP

(Complement)

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X bar projection2

X-bar Projection

XP

X `

YP

(Specifier)

X `

ZP

(Adjunct)

(Head)

ZP

(Complement)

X

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X bar projection3

X-bar Projection

NP

N `

NPspecifier

John’s

Nhead

PPcomplement

solution

to the problem

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X bar projection4

X-bar Projection

NP

N `

Detspecifier

the

PPadjunct

N `

in the cabinet meeting

PPcomplement

Nhead

of the cricket match

discussion

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Complement and adjuncts within an np

Complement and Adjuncts within an NP

NP

N `

Detspecifier

a

PPadjunct

N `

with long hair

PPcomplement

Nhead

student

of NLP

CFILT


Structural ambiguity in an np

Structural Ambiguity in an NP

  • A student [of high moral principles]

  • Is there any ambiguity in this NP ?

    • a person who studies high moral principles

    • a student who has high moral principles

  • This ambiguity can be characterized in structural terms

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A person who studies high moral principles

a person who studies high moral principles

NP

N `

Detspecifier

a

PPcomplement

Nhead

of high moral principles

student

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A student who has high moral principles

a student who has high moral principles

NP

N `

Detspecifier

a

PPadjunct

N `

of moral principles

Nhead

student

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Examples

Examples

  • Arguments [with John] are often pointless. (???)

  • Arguments [with few premises] are often pointless. (???)

  • Arguments [with John] [with few premises] are often pointless.

  • *Arguments [with few premises] [with John] are often pointless.

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Phrase structure rules for noun phrases

Phrase Structure Rules for Noun Phrases

  • The complement must precede an adjunct.

  • Rules

    • NP N’ (PP)adjunct rule

    • N’ N (PP)complement rule

  • Examples

    • a student [of Physics] [with long hair]

    • * a student [with long hair] [of Physics]

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Phrase structure rules for noun phrases1

Phrase Structure Rules for Noun Phrases

  • Adjunct rules are recursive.

  • A complement rule is not recursive, i.e., it can apply only once.

  • Examples

    • a student [with long hair] [with short arms]

    • * a student [of Physics] [of Chemistry]

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Reordering of adjuncts

Reordering of Adjuncts

  • Unlike complements which have to precede adjuncts, adjuncts can be freely reordered with respect to each other.

  • a student [with long hair] [with short arms]

  • a student [with short arms] [with long hair]

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Co ordination

Co-ordination

  • Complements can be co-ordinated with other complements.

    • a student [of linguistics] and [of Computer Science]

  • Adjuncts can be co-ordinated with other adjuncts.

    • a student [with short arms] and [with long hair]

  • But adjunct PPs and complements PPs cannot be co-ordinated.

    • * a student [of Physics] and [with short arms]

    • * a student [with short arms] and [of Physics]

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Extraposition

Extraposition

  • Adjuncts are less tightly bound to the head noun than complements.

  • It is possible to extrapose adjuncts PPs but not possible to extrapose complement PPs.

  • Examples

    • A student [with long hair] came to see me yesterday.

    • ? A student came to see me yesterday [with long hair].

    • * A student came to see me yesterday [of Physics].

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Preposing

Preposing

  • Complements and Adjuncts behave differently with respect to preposing.

  • Examples

    • [What branch of linguistics] is John a student of?

    • * [What kind of hair] is John a student with?

  • Note that Complements and Adjuncts go in opposite directions with respect to Extraposition and Preposing.

  • Heads are more closely related to their complements than to their adjuncts.

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Co occurrence restrictions

Co-occurrenceRestrictions

  • Heads place significant restrictions (i.e. , subcategorisation) on what can appear as their complement.

    • a student of NLP

    • * a boy of NLP

    • * a girl of NLP

    • * a teenager of NLP

  • No similar restrictions are imposed on adjuncts.

    • a student with long hair

    • a boy with long hair

    • a girl with long hair

    • a teenager with long hair

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Generalization

Generalization

  • Heads are more closely related to their complements than to their adjuncts.

  • Subcategorisation restrictions hold only between a head and its complement, not between a head and its adjuncts.

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Exercise i

Exercise-I

  • Identify the complements and adjuncts in the following NPs:

    • your reply [to my letter]

    • the attack [on Starr]

    • the loss [of the ship]

    • John’s disgust [at Mary’s behavior]

    • his disillusionment [with life]

    • the book [on the table]

    • the advertisement [on the television]

    • the fight [after the match]

    • his resignation [because of the scandal]

    • a cup [with a broken handle]

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Exercise ii

Exercise-II

  • Provide trees for the bracketed NPs in the following sentences:

    • I met [a specialist in fibreoptics from Japan].

    • [The journey from Mumbai to Delhi on the Christmas Day] was tiring.

    • [The discussion of the riots in the bar] was full and frank.

    • [The solution to the problem given by John] is better than the solution given by Mary.

    • [The solution to last week’s quiz on page 20] is a better one.

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Sources and suggested readings

Sources and Suggested Readings

  • Introduction to Government and Binding Theory, 2nd edn., Liliane Haegeman, Blackwell, 1994.

  • Syntactic Structures Revisited, Howard Lasnik, MIT Press, 2000.

  • Bhatt, R. 2003. Introduction to Syntax.

  • Principles and Parameters, Peter Culicover, Oxford, 1997.

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Thank you

THANK YOU

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