Church Reform and the Crusades

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Church Reform and the Crusades

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1. Church Reform and the Crusades Chapter 14 Section 1

3. Problems in the Church Many problems troubled the Church, three biggest problems: Village priests married and had families- such marriages were not allowed Positions in the Church were sold by bishops, this practice is called Simony Lay Investiture put kings in control of church bishops- reformers believed bishops should be appointed by the Church alone

4. Reform Begins at Cluny 520, Benedict wrote a book setting strict rules for monasteries 910, reformers founded a Benedictine monastery at Cluny, France- where monks strictly followed the Benedictine rule Many monasteries followed their leadership 1098, another order was founded, the Cistercian Monks- lived a life of hardship 1049, Pope Leo IX began enforcing laws against simony and marriage of priests

5. Cistercian Monks

6. Reform and Church Organization In the 1100s and 1200s, the Church restructured to look like a kingdom, with the pope at the head Papal Curia- the pope’s group of advisers that acted as a court and helped develop canon law The Church collected taxes in the form of tithes Church performed social services- caring for the poor and sick Popes were successful at limiting simony and marriage of priests

7. Preaching Friars Friars- wandering friars who traveled preaching and spreading the Church’s ideas Friars took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, but did not live in monasteries The Dominicans- one of the earliest orders of friars were founded by Dominic, a Spanish priest Dominicans were scholars Another order of friars- the Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi Franciscans were known for their respect for nature and trust in God

8. A New Style of Architecture Between 800 and 1100, churches were built in the Romanesque style- round arches, thick walls, and pillars In the early 1100s, a Gothic style of architecture emerged- coming from the Germanic tribe Goths

9. Notre Dame- Gothic Architecture

10. Jerusalem

11. The Crusades In 1093, the Byzantine emperor sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders- the letter was read by Pope Urban II The emperor asked for help against the Muslim Turks, threatening to conquer Constantinople Pope Urban II issued a call for a “holy war”- a Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land Over 200 years- many such Crusades were fought with the goal of recovering Jerusalem

12. Causes of the Crusading Spirit Crusades had economic and religious motives Pope Urban’s call brought outpouring of religious support In 1096, between 50,000 and 60,000 knights became Crusaders: wore red crosses sewn on tunics; battle cry “God wills it” Kings and the Church saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of knights who fought each other Younger sons were looking for land and a position in society Later, merchants would profit by financing Crusades

13. First Crusade By 1097, three armies gathered outside Constantinople- most were French, but Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, and Spaniards also fought Problems: Armies had no strategy to capture Jerusalem Nobles argued- no clear leader Inadequate supply lines Crusaders captured the Jerusalem on July 15, 1099 after a month long siege of the city

14. Map of The Crusades, 1096-1204

15. Second Crusade The Crusaders had won a narrow strip of land stretching about 400 miles from Edessa in the north to Jerusalem in the South Four feudal crusader states were carved out, each ruled by a European noble In 1144, Edessa was reconquered by the Turks The Second Crusade was organized to recapture the city, but its armies failed In 1187, Jerusalem fell to the Muslim leader, Saladin

16. Richard the Lion-Hearted Led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs French King- Philip augustus German Emperor- Fredrick I (Barbarossa) English King- Richard the Lion-Hearted Barbarossa died on the journey and Philip Augustus turned home after an argument with Richard. Richard was left to regain the Holy Land from Saladin

17. Third and Fourth Crusades After many battles, Richard and Saladin agreed to a truce in 1192 Jerusalem remained under Muslim control, so long as unarmed Christian pilgrims could freely visit the city’s holy places But in 1198, Pope Innocent III appealed for another Crusade Crusaders became entangled in Italian and Byzantine politics Ended in the looting of Constantinople in 1204, ending the Fourth Crusade

18. Implications of the Crusades The Crusades were violent After breaching the walls of Jerusalem in 1099, the Christians reportedly slaughtered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem In the minds of the Muslims the Crusades were Western invasions motivated by the West’s greed and hatred for Islam The Christian West believed they were reclaiming the Holy Land and stopping the spread of Islam

20. Later Crusades The religious zeal of the First Crusade faede and the Crusades became increasingly common and unsuccessful In later Crusades, armies march to North Africa The French King Louis IX, led the last two Crusade and was later declared a saint Unable to conquer much land

21. Children’s Crusade Took place in 1212 Thousands of children set out for Jerusalem, unarmed Believed that God would give them Jerusalem On their march south to the Mediterranean, many died from cold and starvation One group turned back Most drowned at sea, or were sold into slavery

22. Spanish Crusade- Reconquista In Spain, Muslims (called Moors) had controlled most of the country until the 1100s The Reconquista was a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain By the late 1400s, the Muslims only held the tiny kingdom of Granada By 1492, Granada fell to the Christian army of Queen Ferdinand and Isabella

23. The Spanish Inquisition Spain: large Jewish population had achieved high positions in finance, government , and medicine Most Jews and Muslims had converted to Christianity during the 1400s Inquisition: Catholic tribunal held to suppress heresy (religious beliefs differing from the teachings of the Church) The inquisitors suspected Jewish and Muslim converts of Heresy Suspects would be questioned and tortured- if one confessed they were burned at the stake

24. Torture Devices

25. Effects of the Crusades For Christians Failure of later Crusades lessened the power of the pope and weakened feudal nobility Stimulated trade between Europe and Southwest Asia For Muslims: The intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians left a legacy of bitterness and hatred

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