chapter 22
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 22

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

chapter 22 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 315 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 22. Anus, Rectum, and Prostate. Competencies. Identify anatomic landmarks of the rectum and the prostate gland. Describe the characteristics of the most common rectal and prostatic chief complaints. Perform inspection and palpation of the anus, rectum, and prostate on an adult.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'chapter 22' - lotus


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 22

Chapter 22

Anus, Rectum, and Prostate

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

competencies
Competencies
  • Identify anatomic landmarks of the rectum and the prostate gland.
  • Describe the characteristics of the most common rectal and prostatic chief complaints.
  • Perform inspection and palpation of the anus, rectum, and prostate on an adult.

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

competencies3
Competencies
  • Explain the pathophysiologic rationale for abnormal findings.
  • Document assessment findings.
  • Describe the changes that occur in the rectum and the prostate with the aging process.

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

assessment to include
Assessment to Include
  • Male
    • Anus, rectum, prostate
  • Female
    • Anus, rectum

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

health history
Health History
  • Age
    • Young adult
    • Middle-aged adult
    • Older adult
  • Sex
    • Female
    • Male
  • Race

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

common chief complaints
Common Chief Complaints
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Rectal pain
  • Anal incontinence
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Pruritis
  • Palpable mass

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

characteristics of chief complaint
Characteristics of Chief Complaint
  • Quality
  • Quantity
  • Associated manifestations
  • Aggravating factors
  • Alleviating factors
  • Timing

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

past health history
Past Health History
  • Medical history
    • Anorectal specific
    • Systemic
  • Surgical history
    • Anorectal specific
    • Prostate
  • Medications

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

past health history9
Past Health History
  • Communicable diseases
  • Allergies
  • Injuries/accidents
  • Childhood illnesses
    • Anal stenosis
    • Hirschsprung’s disease

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

past health history10
Past Health History
  • Family history
    • Rectal polyps
    • Rectal cancer
    • Pilonidal cyst
    • Prostate cancer

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

past health history11
Past Health History
  • Social history
    • Substance use
    • Sexual practices
    • Work environment
    • Hobbies/leisure
    • Stress

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

past health history12
Past Health History
  • Health maintenance
    • Sleep
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Safety devices
    • Health checkups

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

assessment
Assessment
  • Special equipment
  • General approach
    • Minimize apprehension
    • Privacy
    • Comfort
  • Patient position
    • Left lateral decubitus
    • Standing
    • Knee-chest

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

inspection
Inspection
  • Assess the following areas for lesions, swelling, inflammation, tenderness, color, appearance
    • Perineum
    • Sacrococcygeal area
    • Anal mucosa

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

palpation
Palpation
  • Anus and rectum
    • Assess for masses, anal sphincter, nodules
  • Prostate
    • Bidigital exam
    • Assess for tenderness, masses, or swelling
    • Assess posterior surface for size, shape, consistency, mobility

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

gerontological variations
Gerontological Variations
  • Decreased muscle elasticity in the rectum
  • Increased risk for rectal prolapse
  • Bowel function changes
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Increased risk for prostate cancer

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

normal findings
Normal Findings
  • Perineum and sacrococcygeal areas
    • Tissue is smooth, intact, free from tenderness
  • Anal mucosa
    • Tissue is pigmented, coarse, moist, and hairless
  • Rectum
    • Good sphincter tone
    • No excessive pain, tenderness, induration, or nodules

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

common abnormal findings
Common Abnormal Findings
  • Excoriation of the perineal skin
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anal fissures
  • Anorectal abscess
  • Anorectal fistula

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

common abnormal findings19
Common Abnormal Findings
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Anal incontinence
  • Anal stenosis
  • Internal hemorrhoids
  • Rectal polyps
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy

(continues)

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

common abnormal findings20
Common Abnormal Findings
  • Variations in stool color
    • Bright red stool
    • Black stool
    • Melena
    • Gray, tan
    • Pale yellow, greasy, fatty

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

risk factors for rectal cancer
Risk Factors for Rectal Cancer
  • Age > 50
  • Familial history
  • History of adenomatous polyps, familial polyposis, endometrial or ovarian or breast cancer
  • Diet low in fiber, high in fat

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

risk factors for prostate cancer
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
  • Age > 50
  • Family history
  • African American
  • Diet high in fat, oil, sugar
  • High levels of serum testosterone

Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning

ad