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Chapter 13. Sexual Coercion. Quote for the day. If a woman chooses not to have intercourse and the man chooses to proceed against her will, that is…rape. Susan Brownmiller Author, Against Our Will. Sexual Coercion. Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors Verbal Sexual Coercion Forcible Sex.

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Sexual Coercion


Quote for the day

Quote for the day

If a woman chooses not to have intercourse and the man chooses to proceed against her will, that is…rape.

Susan Brownmiller

Author, Against Our Will


Sexual coercion

Sexual Coercion

Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

Verbal Sexual Coercion

Forcible Sex


Nonconsenting sexual behaviors
Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

  • Frotteurism

    • obtaining sexual pleasure by pressing or rubbing against a fully clothed nonconsenting person in a public place

    • May be more common than indicated by statistics, as it often goes unreported.

    • Typically male; most are young (15-25 years old)


Nonconsenting sexual behaviors1
Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

  • Frotteurism

  • Exhibitionism (“flashing”)

    • Exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers for the purpose of sexual arousal

    • Difficult to know prevalence (e.g., one-third of college women in one study had been flashed)

    • Typically white, married males in their 20s/30s

    • Issues of trust, shame, and desire immediate gratification


Nonconsenting sexual behaviors2
Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

  • Frotteurism

  • Exhibitionism

  • Voyeurism (“Peeping Tom”)

    • Observing unsuspecting persons who are naked, undressing, or engaged in sexual relations

    • Sexually aroused if risk of discovery is high

    • Typically male; begins before age 15

    • Issues of inadequacy, poor self-esteem, lack of social/sexual skills


Nonconsenting sexual behaviors3
Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

  • Frotteurism

  • Exhibitionism

  • Voyeurism

  • Obscene Telephone Calling

    • Telephoning nonconsenting people and making sexual remarks for purpose of sexual arousal

    • Illegal, but common

    • Typically male; has poor social skills


Nonconsenting sexual behaviors4
Nonconsenting Sexual Behaviors

  • Theoretical Perspectives

    • Classical psychoanalytic theory

    • Learning theory

    • Courtship disorder theory

    • Evolutionary theory

    • Social exchange theory

    • Biological theory

    • Feminist theory


Verbal sexual coercion
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment

    • Use of deliberate and repeated verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is considered unwelcome by the recipient.

    • Not to be confused with flirting or joking.

    • One problem: exact same behavior may be perceived as harassment by one person and not by another.

    • True sexual harassment goes beyond a simple misunderstanding - it is often intended to exploit someone or make daily life unpleasant.

    • Victim and offender can be the same sex (9% of cases); although most cases involve a man harassing a woman (90%); few involve woman harassing a man (1%)


Verbal sexual coercion1
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

    • Quid pro quo or “I’ll do something for you if you do something for me.”

    • Creation of hostile, intimidating or offensive environment that violates an individual’s civil rights.

    • Employers can be held responsible.

    • High profile cases such as Anita Hills’ allegation against Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas


Verbal sexual coercion2
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

  • Sexual Harassment in the Military

    • 1991 Tailhook Navy scandal

    • 1996 Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground

    • Army survey results

    • Impact of sexual harassment on military personnel

    • Women more likely to have been harassed than men, at greater frequencies than men , and the negative impact on women was greater.


Verbal sexual coercion3
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

  • Sexual Harassment in the Military

  • Sexual Harassment in Education

    • AAUW survey results:

      • Sexual harassment widespread

      • One third see it as normal part of school life

    • College campus

      • College student harassed by professor

      • College student harassed by peers

      • College professor harassed by students or other professors



Verbal sexual coercion4
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

  • Sexual Harassment in the Military

  • Sexual Harassment in Education

  • Dealing with Sexual Harassment

    • Perceptions of harasser and person being harassed are likely to be quite different.

    • Person being harassed is often blamed for encouraging or exaggerating the harassing behavior

    • Most cases go unreported - instead, avoid person doing the harassing

    • Research using live-interviews reveals interesting results.


Verbal sexual coercion5
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

  • Sexual Harassment in the Military

  • Sexual Harassment in Education

  • Theoretical Perspectives

    • Feminist perspective

    • Evolutionary perspective

    • Link between power and sex


Verbal sexual coercion6
Verbal Sexual Coercion

  • Sexual Harassment

  • Verbal Sexual Pressure

    • “I know you really want to do it.”

    • “You’re just so sexy, I can’t control myself around you.”

    • Research suggests it is common and pervasive


Forcible sex
Forcible Sex

  • Rape is generally defined as the use of force, or the threat of force, to obtain sex.

  • Primarily a crime of violence, not sex.

  • Cross-culturally, level of rape is associated with FIGs and potential for punishment.


Prevalence of rape
Prevalence of Rape

  • Issue of underreporting

  • U.S. Deptartment of Justice: 18% of women; 3% of men have experienced rape or attempted rape; @310,000 rapes or attempted rapes each year

  • Women 16-24 are three times more likely to be raped than older women.

  • Little research on homosexual relationships, and on heterosexual rape of men.



Attitudes and beliefs about rape
Attitudes and Beliefs About Rape

  • Myths and misconceptions

  • Rape-prone society - commonly held beliefs help to create a social climate that legitimizes rape and blames the victim

  • Those holding less traditional gender-role stereotypes appear to perceive rape as more serious, less likely to blame victim.

  • “Just world” belief

  • Rape attitudes can affect the judicial system



Types of rape
Types of Rape

  • Gang Rape


Types of rape1
Types of Rape

  • Gang Rape

  • Acquaintance Rape (“date rape”)

    • Most rape victims know their rapist

    • Relationships that break up seem to constitute a special risk for rape

    • Issue of consent

    • Alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs are important risk factors

    • “Date rape” drugs


Women s relationships with men who forced them to do something sexual that they did not want to do
Women’s relationships with men who forced them to do something sexual that they did not want to do.


Types of rape2
Types of Rape something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Gang Rape

  • Acquaintance Rape (“date rape”)

  • Marital Rape

    • Associated with verbal and physical abuse

    • Marital rape often goes unrecognized by victim

    • Difficult to estimate number


Types of rape3
Types of Rape something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Gang Rape

  • Acquaintance Rape (“date rape”)

  • Marital Rape

  • Prison Rape

    • Many male-on-male rapes occur in prison

    • Reasons vary: assert dominance, prove manhood, satisfy sexual needs, exert power over inmates

    • Difficult to estimate since few are reported


Types of rape4
Types of Rape something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Gang Rape

  • Acquaintance Rape (“date rape”)

  • Marital Rape

  • Prison Rape

  • Wartime Rape

    • Long history

    • Used to dominate, humiliate, control enemy

    • In 1996 UN international Criminal Tribunal ruled that wartime rape is a punishable crime, marking the first time that sexual assault has been treated separately as a war crime.


Theoretical perspectives on rape
Theoretical Perspectives on Rape something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Poor Social Skills

  • Feminism and Power

  • Evolutionary Strategy

  • Social Learning Theory

  • Narcissistic Reactance


Characteristics of rapists
Characteristics of Rapists something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Although most rapists are men, most men are not rapists.

  • Tend to hold more rape supportive attitudes.

  • Four factors predispose males to be sexually coercive: hostile home environment, history of delinquent behavior, heavy emphasis on sexual conquests, deep seated hostility toward women.

  • In stranger rape: a third experience sexual dysfunction


Rape resistance
Rape Resistance something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Over 80% of women used one or more forms of resistance. Less than 20% who resisted reported that this worsened the situation.

  • A woman’s reaction when first approached may determine outcome: act with firmness, and self-assurance

  • Examples of strategies (including vomiting)


Rape survivors
Rape Survivors something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Physical Issues

    • Injury

    • sexually transmitted infection

    • pregnancy

  • Decision to report

    • implications


Ten things not to say to a rape survivor
Ten things NOT to say to a rape survivor something sexual that they did not want to do.


Rape reporting rationales
Rape Reporting Rationales something sexual that they did not want to do.


Rape survivors1
Rape Survivors something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Physical Issues

  • Decision to report

  • Psychological Issues

    • Rape Trauma Syndrome

      • Acute phase

      • Reorganization phase

      • PTSD

      • Importance of receiving help


Rape prevention
Rape Prevention something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Changing cultural attitudes through:

    • Education

    • “Men Against Rape” or “Men Can Stop Rape” groups

  • Victims cannot necessarily prevent rape, and it is important to avoid blaming the victim


Sexual abuse of children
Sexual Abuse of Children something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Defined as any form of sexual contact between an adult and a child, with or without the use of force or physical threat.

  • Wide range of behaviors can be considered abusive.

  • Touching of the genitals is by far the most frequent sexually abusive behavior.


Prevalence of child sexual abuse
Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Child sexual abuse often goes unreported

  • Statistics vary considerably:

    • 1985 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: one out of nine or ten boys; one out of four or five girls

    • 1987 Kohn study: 10% of boys; 25% of girls

    • 1990 Finkelhor et al: 16% of boys, 27% of girls

    • 1992 Janus Report: 11% of boys; 23% of girls

    • 1994 Laumann et al: 12% of boys; 17% of girls

    • 1997 Gorey & Leslie summary of 16 studies: 9% of men and 22% of women sexually abused as children


Incest
Incest something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Sexual contact between family members, one of whom may be a child.

  • Incest taboo is the first sexual rue that a child learns and the only sexual restriction that is in effect throughout a person’s lifetime.

  • Most identified cases of incest involve father-daughter incest (more often step-father)

  • Few reports of mothers sexually abusing children

  • Most common and least reported form of incest occurs between siblings.


Relationship of sexual abuser to abused child
Relationship of Sexual Abuser to Abused Child something sexual that they did not want to do.


Characteristics of child sex offenders
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Pedophiles are adults who have persistent or recurrent sexual attraction to children.

  • All sexual abusers of children are not pedophiles, and all pedophiles are not sexual abusers of children.

  • Some research suggests that sexual attraction to children may be more common than we realize.

  • Abused/abuser theories purport that sexual abuse in childhood makes adults prone to commit sexual acts against children.

  • Most adults who were sexually abused as children do not go on to molest children.


Characteristics of child sex offenders1
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Finkelhor and Williams (1988) study of 118 incestuous fathers and stepfathers identified:

    • Sexually preoccupied 26%

    • Adolescent regressives 33%

    • Instrumental self-gratifiers 20%

    • Emotionally dependent 10%

    • Angry retaliators 10%


Characteristics of child sex offenders2
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Preconditions that need to be met by an offender for sexual abuse to occur:

    • Sexual arousal

    • Emotional congruence

    • Blockage

    • Disinhibition


Characteristics of child sex offenders3
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Female sex offenders may be vastly underreported.

  • Matthew’s (1987) study of 100 women sex offenders categorized them as:

    • The teacher-lover

    • The experimenter-exploiters

    • The predisposed offender

    • The male-coerced offender


Characteristics of child sex offenders4
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Adults who sexually abuse children come from all races, religions, occupations, educational levels, and economic backgrounds.

  • Profiles suggest they tend to be shy, lonely, poorly informed about sexuality, and very moralistic or religious, poor interpersonal relationships, feel socially inadequate.

  • Sex offenders victimize children of their same gender, opposite gender or both. The issue is not the gender of the victim, but his or her age.


Effects of child sexual abuse
Effects of Child Sexual Abuse something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Array of short- and long-term psychological, emotional, and physical problems

  • Sexually abused children may exhibit sexualized behavior.

  • May learn how to be abused again.

  • Less likely to use birth control, have more unplanned pregnancies and abortions, and are at higher risk for STIs.

  • Not all survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer adverse effects.

  • Meta-analysis of 59 studies: Victims were about 1% less well adjusted than nonvictims.

  • While the consequences can be severe, they may not be inevitable and there is effective treatment available.


Prevention of child sexual abuse
Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • Warnings: “Don’t talk to strangers; don’t accept gifts from strangers; don’t get in a car with a stranger”

  • These warnings will not help prevent sexual abuse in which the offender is a family member, a teacher, a scout leader, or a clergyman.


Prevention of child sexual abuse1
Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse something sexual that they did not want to do.

Concepts in child abuse prevention programs:

  • Body ownership

  • Touch continuum

  • Secrecy

  • Intuition

  • Saying no

  • Support systems


Prevention of child sexual abuse2
Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse something sexual that they did not want to do.

  • The child is not to blame for the abuse!

  • Just as adult rape victims cannot always prevent an assault, victims of childhood sexual abuse cannot be expected to prevent the abuse and should never be made to feel guilty about not doing something to stop it.


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