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Cells: A Review A Little History. . . English scientist, Robert Hooke (1665) looked at cork through a compound microscope saw tiny, room-like structures called these structures 'cells' saw only outer walls - cork cells are not alive ( But they used to be! )

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A little history l.jpg
A Little History. . .

English scientist, Robert Hooke (1665)

  • looked at cork through a compound microscope

  • saw tiny, room-like structures

  • called these structures 'cells'

  • saw only outer walls - cork cells are not alive

  • (But they used to be!)


Dutch fabric merchant and amateur scientist anton van leeuwenhoek 1680 l.jpg
Dutch fabric merchant and amateur scientist, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1680)

  • looked at blood, rainwater, scrapings from teeth through a simple microscope

  • observed living cells

  • called these 'animalcules'


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German scientists Leeuwenhoek (1680)

  • Matthias Schleiden (1838)

  • Said that plants are made of cells

Schleiden

  • Theodor Schwann (1839)

  • Said that animals are

  • made of cells

Schwann

  • Rudolph Virchow (1854)

  • Said that new cells form

  • when old cells divide.

Virchow


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Cell Theory Leeuwenhoek (1680)

The work of Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow led to the development of the cell theory.

  • All living things are made of one or more cells.

  • Cells are the basic unit (building block) of all living things.

  • All cells come from cells that already exist.


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Unicellular or multicellular? Leeuwenhoek (1680)

Some complete organisms are made of only one cell.

Some are made of only a few cells.


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Others are made of many cells. Leeuwenhoek (1680)


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Parts of a Cell Leeuwenhoek (1680): All cells have some very basic parts.

Cell Membrane - forms

the outer boundary of the

cell and allows only certain

materials to move into or

out of the cell


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Nucleus Leeuwenhoek (1680) - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes made of DNA

Nuclear Membrane - separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell


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Endoplasmic Reticulum Leeuwenhoek (1680) - moves materials around in the cell

(called ER for short)

Golgi Bodies - are used for

packaging and secreting; “hunks” of ER pinch off to form Golgi bodies


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Ribosomes Leeuwenhoek (1680) - make protein for the cell



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Vacuoles cell - are storage areas for the cell

exocytosis and endocytosis


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Lysosomes cell

  • The cell’s recyclers.

  • The garbage men of the cell.



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We will look at these cells! of water & nutrients

Onion cells

Cheek cells

(stained)

Elodea cells (plant)


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Microscopes of water & nutrients

micro = small

+

scope = to look

Light Microscopes

  • 1. Simple

    • a. one lens

    • b. first invented in 1500’s

  • Compound

    • two lenses

    • We use this one in class.


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Electron of water & nutrients

Microscopes

  • TEM

    • Transmission electron microscopes

    • invented in 1931

    • two dimensional image

2. SEM

  • Scanning electron microscopes

  • invented in 1981

  • three dimensional image

  • May be referred to as “tunneling”


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