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Automated X-ray Time Detection Team Members : Joe Poblocki, Prakash Rao, Aaron Huser, Pathik Soni, Kyle Fisher, and Tom Knight Advisor : Prof. John Webster, Ph.D Client : Dr. Walter Peppler, Ph.D Dept. of Medical Physics/Radiology Dr. Gary Wendt, M.D. Dept. of Radiology

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Automated x ray time detection l.jpg
Automated X-ray Time Detection

Team Members:

Joe Poblocki, Prakash Rao, Aaron Huser, Pathik Soni, Kyle Fisher, and Tom Knight

Advisor:

Prof. John Webster, Ph.D

Client:

Dr. Walter Peppler, Ph.D

Dept. of Medical Physics/Radiology

Dr. Gary Wendt, M.D.

Dept. of Radiology


Problem statement l.jpg
Problem Statement

The purpose of this project is to design a system that accurately and automatically detects the date and time of radiation exposure on a computed radiography (CR) cassette during x-ray exams.


Problem motivation l.jpg
Problem Motivation

  • Currently, the x-ray is assigned a time based on development, not that of exposure

  • Potential for incorrect diagnoses and/or double exposure

  • The possibility of human error exists


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Design Constraints

  • Device should be as lightweight and thin as possible

  • Software with an easy to use interface and customizable features

  • Reliable data transmission

  • Long battery life

  • Device must be durable to withstand repeated use and accidental impacts

  • Fluid- and light-resistant housing



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Background (cont.)

  • Constraints with the x-ray reader

    • Top of cassette has clearance of ~7/8 in.

    • Bottom of cassette has clearance of ~2.25 in.

    • Middle of cassette has clearance of 10-15 inches

    • This is not taking into consideration the thickness of the cassette



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Detection and Amplification

  • X-ray detector is comprised of Si photodiode coupled to scintillator

  • Scintillators convert x-ray energy into high energy photons

  • Photodiode absorbs photons and creates current flow in external circuit


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Design and Amplification

Based on ICL7650


Design 1 timestamp via infrared transmission l.jpg
Design #1: Timestamp via Infrared Transmission

By Joe Poblocki and Kyle Fisher


Timestamp via infrared transmission l.jpg
Timestamp via Infrared Transmission

  • Infrared (IR) light is commonly used to transmit signals wirelessly.

  • Our design couples IR with an X-Ray detector to automatically transmit time and patient information to a P.D.A. for storage.


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Infrared Signaling

  • Common sources of infrared include light bulbs, central heating systems, and the human body which can interfere with transmission of signals.

  • Modulating the signal allows the IR light source to blink in a particular frequency so the IR receiver, tuned accordingly, can ignore everything else.



Design advantages l.jpg
Design Advantages

  • Attachment to x-ray cartridge is small and lightweight

  • Signal is transmitted automatically

  • Inexpensive

  • Reduces the possibility for human error

  • Easily provides feedback to technician


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Potential Problems

  • Unique signal must be created for transmitter to avoid interference

  • Signal reliability is dependent upon the distance between the transmitter and receiver

  • Adds additional step in x-ray stamping process


Projected cost l.jpg

P.D.A.

IR Emitter

IR Receiver

X-Ray Detector

USB Connection

PDA module

Total

$400

$15

$75

$30

$25

$1000

$1515

Projected Cost


Design 2 pcmcia data acquisition l.jpg
Design #2: PCMCIA Data Acquisition

Team Members:

Aaron Huser

Pathik Soni



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Components of Time Stamping System

  • Scintillation Crystal and Photodiode

  • Operational Amplifier

  • LabVIEW 7.1

  • LabVIEW for PDA device

  • National Instruments PCMCIA-4050

  • PDA with Palm OS or Pocket PC 2003 OS

  • Test Probes


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Possible Pocket PCs

  • palmOne Zire 72

    • $250

    • 312 MHz processor

  • Dell Axim X30

    • $300

    • 624 MHz processor

  • hp iPAQ h4150

    • $400

    • 400 MHz processor


Software applications l.jpg
Software Applications

  • LabVIEW software used to make a program to acquire data

  • LabVIEW PDA Module will allow software to be used on a PDA with Pocket PC OS 2002 or later

  • LabVIEW or WinBatch will be used to take infromation from the PDA and store it in the X-Ray file


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PCMCIA 4050

  • Probes monitor the voltage via connection with the operational amplifier

  • PCMCIA card communicates with Pocket PC and LabVIEW

  • Cost of probes and PCMCIA card: $715


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Total Costs

  • Dell Axim X30 PDA $300

  • Scintillation Crystal and Photo Diode $30

  • LabVIEW w/ PDA Module $1000

  • PCMCIA 4050 and Probes $715

    ______________________________________

  • Total: $2045


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Advantages and Disadvantages

  • Advantages

    • Computer program records the time

    • Pocket PC is portable

    • Reduced potential for human error, everything is done electronically

  • Disadvantages

    • Cost ($2000 +)

    • Probe wires, photo diode, and pocket pc will all be on the cassette



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Wireless PDA with Confirmation System

  • Flow Diagrams of PDA and Laptop Functions

  • PDA Functions

  • Laptop Functions

  • Benefits of System

  • Possible Concerns

  • Expenses



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PDA Functions

PDA Located on X-ray Machine

  • Scan Barcode of Patient ID

  • Scan Barcode of Film ID

  • Verify with Laptop that Film has not been Exposed

  • Sense Voltage Increase from X-Ray Exposure

  • Record the Time and Date of Exposure

  • Transmit all Information to Laptop Database


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Laptop Functions

Laptop Located in Developing Room

  • Receives Patient ID, X-ray ID, Time and Date from PDA

  • Verifies for PDA that Film ID is not exposed

  • Acknowledge that both PDA and Laptop Received Sent information

  • Keeps Database of Patient ID with Film ID and Time

  • After Developing, Technician Changes Time and Date of X-ray


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Benefits of System

  • Accurately Records Time and Date

  • Operates with Minimal Human Interaction

  • Communicates Wirelessly, Automatically

  • Equipment not Exposed to X-ray Radiation

  • Multiple X-ray Machines can be Integrated

  • Cassettes only require addition of X-ray detector

  • Requires only 1 PDA per machine

  • Requires only 1 Laptop per developing room


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Possible Concerns

  • Wireless Interference and Quality

  • Technician Transcribing Error

  • Process of Plugging Cassette into PDA


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Expenses

  • X-ray Detector < $30

  • PDA $450

  • Laptop $900 (could use current PC)

  • USB Oscilloscope $200

  • USB Hub (splitter) $20

  • Barcode Scanner $70

  • PDA Module $1000 (UW Software used)

Price per Cassette: < $30

Price per Machine: $750

Initial expense Range: $1800-$2700


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Future Work

  • Research effects of X-Rays on semi-conductors

  • Research educational discounts for software

  • Research more DAQ techniques

  • Write LabVIEW and WinBatch programs

  • Test LabVIEW and WinBatch programs

  • Evaluate small group designs and choose a final design



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Works Cited

  • Hamamatsu Photonics Homepage. <http://usa.hamamatsu.com>.

  • Infrared Remote Control Technology.<http://www.epanorama.net/links/irremote.html>.

  • National Instruments- Test and Measurements. <http://www.ni.com>.

  • PC World. 03 June 2004. <http://www.pcworld.com/reviews/article/0,aid,116027,00.asp>.

  • Somers, Steve. IR Control - The Invisible Frontier. <http://www.extron.com/technology/archive.asp?id=irrf95>.

  • TotalBarcode.com. <http://www.totalbarcode.com>.

  • USB-Instruments. 2004. <http://www.usb-instruments.com>.


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