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Western International University Research Methods – RES 600 Michael J. Miller, Ph.D michaelmillerphd.com. APA Citation Protocol. Text Citations. One Author McNelly (1999) states that teambuilding is becoming increasingly important in organizations. or

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apa citation protocol

Western International University

Research Methods – RES 600

Michael J. Miller, Ph.D

michaelmillerphd.com

APA Citation Protocol

text citations
Text Citations
  • One Author
    • McNelly (1999) states that teambuilding is becoming increasingly important in organizations.
      • or
    • Teambuilding is becoming increasingly important in organizations (McNelly, 1999).
      • or
    • In 1999, McNelly stated that teambuilding is becoming increasingly important in organizations.
text citations cont
Text Citations (cont.)
  • Same author and the same year
    • McNelly (1999a, b) has claimed that work teams are becoming the norm in today’s business world.
      • or
    • McNelly (1999a) states that….
      • and later
    • More and more companies are using work teams (McNelly, 1999b).
  • No date given
    • McNelly (n.d.) suggests that….
text citations cont4
Text Citations (cont.)
  • Two authors named in your text
    • McNelly and Arthur (2000) found that team performance improved after feedback.
      • or
    • It has been shown that team performance improves after feedback (McNelly & Arthur, 2000).
    • McNelly and Arthur also suggested that feedback must be timely in order to obtain the greatest result. (referring to the same authors and study in the same paragraph)
text citations cont5
Text Citations (cont.)
  • Multiple authors and use of ‘et al.’
    • McNelly, Arthur, and Day (1998) found that… (first citation in text)
    • McNelly et al. (1998) found that… (subsequent citation(s) in text)
    • McNelly et al. also demonstrated that… (referring to the same authors and study in the same paragraph)
    • When there are six (6) or more author
direct quotations
Direct Quotations
  • Short (under 40 words)
    • McNelly (1999) states that “leadership is often shared across the lifespan of the team” (p. 64).
      • or
    • “Leadership is often shared across the lifespan of the team” (McNelly, 1999, p. 64). (Use “pp.” if the quotation appears on more than one page)
  • Long (over 40 words)
    • McNelly (1999) found that:

While the traditional view is often of a group having a single leader, many times this is simply not the case. Leadership is often shared across the lifespan of the team. Specifically, team members take turns being the leader by keeping the group on task, facilitating discussions and serving as the expert in a particular subject matter.

(p.64)

direct quotations cont
Direct Quotations (cont.)
  • Electronic source with no page numbers
    • “Transitional leadership is often the most effective” (McNelly, 2004, para. 5).
personal communication
Personal Communication
  • Many characteristics comprise a truly effective team (W. Arthur, personal communication, January 10, 2001).
      • or
  • According to Dr. Winfred Arthur, many characteristics comprise a truly effective team (personal communication, January 10, 2001).
references
References
  • List alphabetically
  • Do NOT use people’s titles, degrees, etc.
  • Do NOT spell out first or middle names
  • Underline or italicize the title of the article or publication (e.g., article, book)
  • Do not write out the complete citation or provide URL (Web address) in the main body of the paper
references cont
References (cont.)
  • Periodical
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume #, xxx-xxx.
  • Book
    • Author, A. A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
  • Book chapter
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
references cont11
References (cont.)
  • Magazine article
    • Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of magazine, volume #, xxx – xxx.
  • Online sources
    • Author, A. (year). Title of article. Name of periodical [On-line], volume #. Available: Specify path
    • Author, A., Author, B. B. & Author, C. (year). Title of full work [On-line]. Available: Specify path
apa citation sources on the internet
APA Citation Sources on the Internet
  • Bedford/St. Martin’s
    • http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite6.html
  • Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab
    • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
  • APA Style Electronic Formats
    • http://www.westwords.com/guffey/apa.html
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