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GenIma: program to simulate e mulsions. Reconstruction optimization and parameters understanding are difficult for emulsions : Lack of data for various conditions ( particle type, angles, energies, fog densities, ambiant radioactivity integration times, etc) and poor statistics.

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Genima program to simulate e mulsions
GenIma: program to simulate emulsions

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Reconstruction optimization and parameters understanding are difficult for emulsions:

  • Lack of data for various conditions ( particle type, angles, energies, fog densities, ambiant radioactivity integration times, etc) and poor statistics.

  • Large feed-back time between beam tests and scanning

  • ECC efficiency evaluation will be needed

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


GEN difficult : Particles generation in GEANT 3.2

  • Anything you like as particles, energies, dE/dX, vertices, neutrinos events, etc

  • Keep the coordinates of energy deposites in a volume =200 200 288 3 21  dead-zone

  • Density of 30 grains/100

  • -rays generated

  • Track density controlled ( ex: 10/field of view)

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


The virtual microscope difficult

Focused plane

objective

ccd plane

d=3.254 mm

Grain plane

d=200 mm

r=6mm

The systeme objective-ccd (in red) can move along the optical axis: we keep 16 tomographic planes ; is defined by objective characteristics

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


IMA difficult : makes pictures fom GEN output

  • For each “grain” x,y,z , intercept the ccd surface by a conical prolongation  surface S of pixels to “darken”. cone aperture : N.A (numerical aperture):

     = arcsin(N.A/nrefr )

  • Fill them with grey in each of the 32 picture planes; grey density varies with 1 /S and e-d/ (  is an effective emulsion attenuation lenghth)

  • Lateral size of grains: appropriate smearing matrix

  • z- grain size: 5 z values displaced by (0.6  /5) (luxuous)

  • Linear or parabolic distorsions included (ex:flat from 0 to 40mrad)

  • Objective geometrical distorsions, non-uniform lighting

  • Pictures are written in Fortran (PPM format), then converted in JPEG or BMP with XView.

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


My objective
“My objective” difficult

  • Dry ( oil) objective N.A = 0.8 , G= “ 50 “

  • Focal length : f=3.23 mm

  • Distance objective-ccd plane: 200 mm G=62.5

  • ccd: 1024 1024 pixels 12 12 2

  • thin lense approximation, no explicite diffraction ( included in matrix)

    sin = N.A/nrefr

    (in a camera: objective luminosity = f/Dobj=1/2.tg () )

  • = 32o in emulsion

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Format ppm
Format PPM difficult

http//cedric.cnam.fr/~gouet/Var/ppm.html

#Example: toto.ppm

P3

4 4

255

# redgreenblue

0 0 0 16 16 16 32 32 32 48 48 48

64 64 64 80 80 80 96 96 96 112 112 112

128 128 128 143 143 143 159 159 159 175 175 175

191 191 191 207 207 207 223 23 223 239 239 239

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Fog and background
Fog and background difficult

  • Fog is randomly generated as single grain with a density of 6 grains/ (10 )3

  • time consuming, but

  • Albums of fogs can be generated only once, and pictures added to the tracks ones

  • Album of real emulsions data can be used also (fog+radioactivity fossiles tracks after refreshing)

  • An ultimate uniform grey layer is added at the end (light scattering, long distance shadows)

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Oil and air without fog na 0 8 electrons 0 2 1 mev
Oil and air difficult (without fog) NA=0.8 electrons 0.2-1 MeV

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Oil and air without fog na 0 8 electrons 0 2 1 mev1
Oil and air difficult (without fog) NA=0.8 electrons 0.2-1 MeV

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation1
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation2
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation3
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation4
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Emulsion simulation5
Emulsion simulation difficult

  • 16 images

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04



Depth of field
Depth of field difficult

  • From geometry, depth of field can be shorter for oil since  is larger.

  • But diffraction is imposing a minimum spot radius (Airy distribution)

  • NIKON handbook :

    dof=.n/NA2+n.esep/NA

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


2 gev
2 GeV difficult

Oil objective Dry objective

80 MeV

2 

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


An application base track efficiency
An application:base track efficiency difficult

(extremely preliminary)

  • Distorsion (0-40 mrad)

  • Clustering: just threshold and saturation

  • Start from top microtrack, open a 50 mrad cone

  • Find n “clusters” in bottom road : n6?

  • Efficiency for base track association: 0.93 (0 mrad)

  • Increase with angle 0.95 (300 mrad)

  • Sysal filter or micro track finder responsible for this measured fact? Inject Genima pictures (or code ) in Sysal

  • What is this dependency (if any) with the UTS,SUTS tools?

    :simulate pulse height

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


Next steps
Next difficult steps…

  • Release a Fortran version with documentation (Sysal)

  • Pictures are in FEDRA (Dominique)

  • “Albums” of various background

  • Refreshing action parametrization

  • Filtering in GenIma to reduce heavy pictures?

    and…neutrino events with several emulsions and lead ?

Jean Favier LAPP OPERA meeting Hamburg 5/06/04


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