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Chapter 2 Introduction to Wireless Networking. Outline. Evolution of Mobile Communication Systems GPRS Overview Introduction to 3G Mobile Data Services 3G Terminals Products Demo. Evolution of Mobile Communication Systems. Cellular Networks. North America: 1G:

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Chapter 2Introduction to Wireless Networking

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Outline

  • Evolution of Mobile Communication Systems

  • GPRS Overview

  • Introduction to 3G

  • Mobile Data Services

  • 3G Terminals

  • Products Demo

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng



Cellular networks
Cellular Networks

  • North America:

    • 1G:

      • AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System); Analog

    • 2G

      • NAMPS; Analog

      • TDMA (IS-54, IS-136); Digital

      • CDMA (IS-95); Digital

    • 3G

      • IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000); Digital

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Cellular networks1
Cellular Networks

  • European

    • 1G

      • TACS (Total Access Communication System); Analog

      • NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone); Analog; NMT-450, NMT-900

    • 2G

      • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications); Digital: GSM900, DCS1800, DCS1900

    • 3G

      • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems); Digital

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Cellular networks2
Cellular Networks

  • Japan

    • 2G

      • PDC (Personal Digital Cellular)

  • Germany

    • 1G

      • C-Netz

    • 2G

      • GSM

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Cordless telephones
Cordless Telephones

  • European

    • CT1, CT2 (Cordless Telephone, second generation)

    • DECT (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications)

  • America

    • PACS (Personal Access Communications System)

  • Canada

    • CT2Plus (CT2, enhanced version)

  • Japan

    • PHS (Personal Handyphone System)

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Packet networks
Packet Networks

  • RAM/Mobitex,

  • ARDIS/Modacom

  • TETRA (Trans European Trunked Radio System)

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Data over cellular
Data over Cellular

  • CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data, over AMPS)

  • GPRS-136 (over IS-136 TDMA)

  • IS-95B (over CDMA)

  • HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data)

  • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service, over GSM)

  • EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)

    • ECSD (Enhanced Circuit-Switched Data; circuit-mode)

    • EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS; packet-mode)

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Paging
Paging

  • Germany, France, Switzerland

    • Eurosignal in 1970s

  • Pan-European

    • ERMES (European Radio Message System) in 1992

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Coverage and bit rate
Coverage and Bit Rate

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Migration

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Evolving towards broadband era
Evolving Towards Broadband Era

1

st Generation

2

nd

Generation

3

rd Generation

1997 1998

1999

2000

2001 2002 2003

Analog

Digital

DAMPS/TDMA

AMPS

IMT-2000/UMTS

Text messaging CDPD

Data

W

-

CDMA

Data: No

N/A

N/A

Speed (kbps)

CDMA 2000

Frequency:

Frequency

824~893 MHz

824~893 MHz

GSM

TACS

Frequency

GPRS EDGE

1885~2025MHz

Data

Text messaging HSCSD

and

9.6~14.4

64

Speed (kbps)

115~144

384Kbps

2110~2200MHz

Frequency

900, 1800, 1900 MHz

CDMA

Speed

Text messaging

CSD for CDMA PSD for CDMA

Data

115~2048 Kbps

Data: No

N/A

N/A

N/A

Speed (kbps)

Frequency

PDC

Text messaging PDC P

Data

9.6~14.4

N/A

Speed (kbps)

1800~1900 MHz

Frequency

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Evolution of mobile data

2nd generation-

Digital radio systems on

circuit-switch telecom

networks,low data speeds

2 Mbps

1st generation-

Analog-based systems

W-CDMA

3rd generation

384 kbps

EDGE

115 kbps

GPRS

57.6 kbps

HSCSD

9.6 kbps

GSM

AMPS

2nd generation

1st generation

1985 1997 1999 2000 2001/2002

Evolving GSM

Wireless Application Protocol

Source: GSA,and TCC

Evolution of Mobile Data

1.SMS

Messaging

2.Web Mail

3.Information

Services

4.Financial

Services-

Information

Access

5.Financial

Services -

transactions

6.Mobile

banking

7.Mobile

Shopping

8.Internet

Access

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


GPRS OVERVIEW

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Data services from gsm to gprs

Inefficient

use of radio

resources

Too

complicated

Too

expensive

Too

slow

No

need

packet

switched

transmission

Emerging

standards:

MDI, WAP, Java

PDA, Smart

Phones

Volume

oriented

accounting

New coding

schemes

&

channel

combining

Extensions of

corporate,

intranet,

& internet

applications

Shared use

of radio

resources

Trueplug & play

Reasonable

costs

Comfortable

speed

Value added

services

Data Services : from GSM to GPRS

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Gprs main improvements
GPRS : Main Improvements

  • Higher transmission rates

    • four new coding schemes allow different data rates ofCS-1 9.05 kbit/s, CS-2 13.4 kbit/s (in 10/00)

      CS-3 15.6 kbit/s, CS-4 21.4 kbit/s (in E/01)

    • channel combining

  • Increased radio resource efficiency

    • radio resources will be used only during data transmission

    • shared access of the same channel

  • Connection of GSM and IP world

  • Volume dependent charging

  • Faster session set-up

  • Always connected

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Gprs covered applications

Group Communication

Video

Conference

bidirectional

Group Call

Point to

Multipoint

Multicast

Broadcast

Traffic Telematics

Video

Broadcast

COMMUNICATION SERVICE

unidirectional

Dialog Messaging

Video Phone

interactive

Multimedia

Internet Surfing

Route Guidance

2-way-Paging

Point of Sale

bidirectional

Fleet Management

Point to

Point

Database Access

Multimedia

Mobile Office

Paging

File Transfer

unidirectional

Video

FAX

Telemetry

e-mail

continiously

bursty

GPRS

TYPE OF DATA TRANSMISSION

GPRS Covered Applications

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


E-Commerce

Application

WWW

Content

Internet/

Intranet

WAP Gateway

Wireless Network

GPRS

Information

Application

WWW

Content

Carrier

Application

Application

Server

GPRS : an Ideal Transport for WAP

  • WAP-enabled GPRS terminals/handsets will provide

    easy access to the world of information at your fingertips

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


GPRS

GSM

Traffic Alert:

Traffic Alert:

Motorway A8

from München

to Nürnberg

congested

Alternative route:

leave motorway at

X-Dorf and follow

the orange signs

Nürnberg

Y-Dorf

A8

X-Dorf

München

>

>

OK

OK

>

>

  • User receives basically the same information, but with

  • GPRS better presentation of information possible

  • WAP over GSM is inefficient use of radio resources

  • WAP over GSM is too expensive

  • WAP over GSM is too slow

WAP Migration from GSM to GPRS

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Wap and gprs are the enabler for converting voice and data

Audio / Video Steaming

Computer

  • Video on demand

  • Interactive video services

  • TV/radio/data contribution & distribution

  • Internet access

  • Electronic mail

  • Real-time image transfer

  • Multimedia document transfer

  • Mobile computing

– mobility

– high speed services

– mobility

– personal services

UMTS

– mobility

– wideband services

Telecommunication

  • ISDN services

  • Video telephony

  • Wideband data services

Mobile Data Applications are the first step to combine Internet with Mobility

WAP and GPRS are the Enabler for Converting Voice and Data

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Application

Service CapabilityServers

Application

Service

GMSC/Transit

HLR

MSC

SGSN

SG

Control

Media Gateway/GGSN

Media Gateway

PSTN/ISDN

Transport

Backbone

Element

Backbone

Element

GSM

InternetIntranets

EDGE

Backbone

Element

WCDMA

Control

User data

Integration of 2G and 3G

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


PSTN

(Voice)

SSS

BSS

Internet

GPRS

GSM&GPRS system

WAP

UTRAN

U_MSC

VPN

3G system

Conceptual Network Architecture of GPRS / 3G

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


3G Introduction

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


The Third Generation Systems

  • Specifications: 3GPP WCDMA & 3GPP2 CDMA2000

  • High data rate for Video transmission and networking

  • Main applications: audio & video phones、stock exchange、 e-mail、mobile banking、mobile Internet、e-maps、Information or news etc.

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Characteristics of 3G

  • Wideband CDMA

  • Multimedia applications

  • better audio quality

  • increased capacity

  • better bandwidth efficiency

  • high data rate

  • integration with 2G systems

  • global roaming

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Asia-

Pacific

IMT-2000

(FDD UL)

IMT-2000

(FDD DL)

IMT-2000

TDD

MSS

MSS

IMT-2000

TDD

IMT-

2000

IMT-

2000

China

GSM1800

GSM1800

PCS

RLL

DECT

PCS

RLL

Japan

IMT-2000(FDD DL)

Reserved

PHS

IMT-2000(FDD UL)

MSS

Reserved

MSS

IMT-2000

(FDD UL)

IMT-2000

TDD

GSM1800

(UL)

GSM1800

(DL)

MSS

IMT-2000

(FDD DL)

MSS

Europe

DECT

IMT-2000

TDD

MSS

Americas

IMT-2000 Additional spectrum

UPCS

PCS F

PCS F

PCS A

PCS E

PCS B

PCS C

PCS A

PCS B

PCS E

PCS D

PCS D

PCS C

IMT-2000

MSS

IMT-2000

MSS

ITU-R

IMT-2000

TDD

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

MHz

Spectrum

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


SOUTH

AFRICA

AUSTRALIA

IRELAND

SWITZER-

LAND

HONG KONG

FRANCE

PORTUGAL

NEW ZEALAND

SPAIN

NORWAY

SWEDEN

FINLAND

GERMANY

DENMARK

UK

Awarded

March 00

AUSTRIA

ITALY

NETHERLANDS

S. KOREA

TAIWAN

BELGIUM

Awarded

March 99

JAPAN

Auction running

March 00

1999

2000

2001

License

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Data transmission rate
Data Transmission Rate

  • Outdoor (rural):

    • maximum rate: 144 kbit/s

    • maximum speed 500 km/h

  • Outdoor (suburb):

    • maximum rate: 384 kbit/s

    • maximum speed 120 km/h

  • Indoor and Metropolitan:

    • maximum rate: 2 Mbit/s

    • maximum speed 10 km/h

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


UTRA/TDD2 Mbit/s

EDGE

473 kbit/s

Smaller cities

Microcell, indoors and private

GPRS

144 kbit/s

UTRA/FDD384 kbit/s

Large cities

National and legacy

Handover/roaming and service continuity between all modes

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng

$2$


Content adaptation
Content Adaptation

A BRIDGE

23K bytes

24-bit color

192x192

4K bytes

4-bit grey

96x96

8K bytes

256 color

128x128

600 bytes

B&W

64x64

16 bytes

Text

Time to transmit at 14.4k bps (in seconds)

16.4 5.7 2.9 0.42 0.01

Intelligent Filtering

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Broadband and Services

GSM @ 9.6 kbps

GPRS @ 56 kbps

3 mins

3 mins

15 secs

15 secs

GPRS @ 115 kbps

EDGE/UMTS @ 384 kbps

3 mins

3 mins

15 secs

15 secs

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


What are the Driving Forces ?Mobile Internet Services & Applications

  • CSD at 9.6 kbit/s

  • GPRS at 100 kbit/s

  • EDGE at 384 kbit/s

  • UMTS at 2 Mbit/s

Downloading a 2MBytes music file

30 mn

3 mn

41 s

8 s

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng

$2$


Conceptual Service Diagram

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Multimedia Services

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Voice and Data Markets

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Mobile and Internet Markets

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


M business mobile and internet

1800

Subscriptions worldwide (bn)

Mobile

subscriber

1600

Mobile

Fixed

Mobile Internet

Fixed Internet

1400

1200

1000

Mobile internet

subscriber

800

600

400

200

0

M-Business: Mobile and internet

1995

2000

2005

2010

Source: Ovum, ICN M CM

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Mobile Data Services

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Global trends in mobile communications

900

800

700

600

500

Mio Mobile Subscriber

400

300

200

100

0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Global Trends in Mobile Communications

World

  • GSM grows steady

  • voice market starts to saturate

  • new technical possibilities

Other technologies

GSM

  • Focus on revenue generation

  • Focus on subscriber base growth

OR

NEW SERVICES

Source: Siemens

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Predictions for mobile data market

80

  • growth in mobile data is expected to be 70% p.a. in next 5 years

  • in 1997 the market has moved out of the development phase

70

60

innovators

early adopters

early majority

Late majority

(Merryl Lynch)

50

in million subscriber

40

30

20

(FT 1997)

10

0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

  • data will account for up to 75% of total mobile traffic

  • by 2005 up to 40% of people in the EU will be using mobile phones (wireless internet)

Predictions for Mobile Data Market

Growth in subscriber base and data volume lead to exponential revenue increase

30

25

20

Mbytes per user per month

15

Today

1.8 Mb/user/month

10

5

0

1995

1998

2001

1996

1997

1999

2000

2002

2003

2004

2005

1.8 Mb/month=21 bits/sec/user/BH

Source: UMTS Forum

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


An example of mobile data services i mode ntt docomo
An Example of Mobile Data Services: i-mode (NTT DoCoMo)

  • I-mode gained 4½ million subscribers within the first 10 month of operation

  • subscribers have access to hundreds of content proverders and thousands of Web sites

  • content avalible that business users and consumers want and need

  • successful due to creation of a complete “ecosystem“

    applications, network and terminals

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Mobile data the value chain possibilities

Operator´s position in the value chain

100 % operator

Operator’s opportunities

0 % operator

Mobile Data – The Value Chain Possibilities

Advantages of occupying the element

  • Traditional business

  • Existing customer relationship

  • Owner of equipment

  • Separation IT & Telecom

  • Closer customerrelationship

  • Joint fixed/mobile offering

  • Value Added Offering possible

  • Evolution towards GPRS/UMTS

  • Control over content

  • Content revenues

  • Quick application roll out

  • Entrance to vertical market

Operator has the opportunities to get into the service and content provisioning for mobile data

Operator

Content Provider

User

Service Provider

  • Higher Churn rate through lack of control over content

  • Missed Opportunities in Internet Business

  • Decreasing Margins

  • Less control over customer relationship

  • RoI

  • Requiredknow how

  • lack of control over content and quality

  • RoI

  • Strong competition

  • Appropriate alliances

  • Requiredknow how

Risks of occupying the element

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


M b usiness future value chain

Operator

Content Provider

User

Service Provider

Enterprise

User

Backbone

Provider

Service

Provider

Application

Service

Provider

Access

Provider

Retailer

Content

Provider

M-Business: future value chain

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Detailed value chain for m business
Detailed Value Chain for M-Business

Content

Packagers

Service

Provider

Content

Provider

Retailers

Users

Service

Packagers

Network

Operators

Infrastructure

Terminals

Supplier

Equipment

Vendor

100% current PLMN

partly current PLMN

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Billing possibilities

Flat Fee

Volume ?

QoS ?

Time ?

Transaction ?

Billing Possibilities

What do users accept?

Keep it transparent to your customers

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


In the voice arena the network operator captures more than 70 of the market

EndUser

NetworkOperator

ServiceProvider

Portal -

CommunityProvider

ContentProvider

In the voice arena, the network operator captures more than 70% of the market

Traditional value chain split in the market

Source: Arthur D. Little / Lucent Technologies

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Importance of roles

EndUser

NetworkOperator

ServiceProvider

Portal -

CommunityProvider

ContentProvider

Importance of Roles

Future value chain split in the market

The network operators must ensure that the content will be accessed through their network - otherwise they will miss out

Advertisement revenues

Source: Arthur D. Little / Lucent Technologies

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Business model 1
Business Model (1)

Today’s voice dominated world

GSM/UMTS

Advertisement

  • Example:

  • Voice, fax

  • WLL

  • email

Revenue Flow

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Business model 2
Business Model (2)

User pays for access and ASP

  • Example:

  • Online Banking

  • E-cash

  • appointment

GSM/UMTS

Application

Service

Provider

Advertisement

Content

Provider

Revenue Flow

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Business model 3
Business Model (3)

User pay only for content/ASP

  • Example:

  • Personal radio

  • Interactive games

  • e-betting

GSM/UMTS

Application

Service

Provider

Advertisement

Content

Provider

Revenue Flow

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Business model 4
Business Model (4)

User contracts only Operator

  • Example:

  • Tourist Info

  • Sports results

  • Micropayment e.g. Parking, Vending

GSM/UMTS

Application

Service

Provider

Advertisement

Content

Provider

Revenue Flow

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Business model 5
Business Model (5)

User contracts with ASP

  • Example:

  • Government Services

  • Car Perfomance Monitor

  • Gaming e.g. Nintendo

GSM/UMTS

Application

Service

Provider

Advertisement

Revenue Flow

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Applications Category

Application Types:

Interaction and Commerce

Reservation & Booking

Intelligent Vending Machine

i.e. Drinks, Cigarettes, Tickets

Interactive Shopping

Online Auctions

Prepaid recharging (Honey Money)

Banking Services

Bank Account Enquiry

Online Banking

Stock Trading

Entertainment/Games

Trivial Pursuit

Interactive Games (Chess)

e-postcard

Audio streaming

Betting (horse race)

Lotto, Bingo

Mobile Office

e-Mail

Organizer

Corporate Directory

Voice-Mail

Fax

Notifications

Unified Messaging

Intranet Access

Information services

Tourist Information

Hotel & Restaurant Finder

Public Directory Services

Horoscope

News (all types)

i.e. world, sports, financial, travel,

traffic, events, weather, TV-program,

Location Services

Restaurant-Finder

Navigation Guide

Surveillance & Security

Video Surveillance

Household Devices Control

Traffic Guidance

Education

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


3G Terminals

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Trends of handsets
Trends of Handsets

TEXT

FILES

VIDEO CLIPS

Typical applications:

Web browsing

business processes

leisure services

e-commerce

Simple messaging

Event notification

Push/pull info services

Simple e-commerce

E-commerce (interactive shopping, adverts etc)

Entertainment services

Business processes

Typical file size:

.DOC (text) 200 kB

.XL (s/sheet) 200 kB

.PPT (graphics) 1,000 kB

.GIF (photo) 100 kB

.HTML (web page) 30 kB

SMS 0.2 kB

E-mail 5 kB

WML 2 kB

MPEG-4 (30sec video) 4 MB

MPEG-3 (3 min audio) 2 MB

GSM

GPRS

EDGE/UMTS

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Concepts of 3G Handsets

  • Data Rates: 384k~2M bps

  • Color screen of high resolution

    and quality

  • Support multimedia

  • Dual mode (GSM/UMTS) operation

  • Bluetooth transmission viable

  • Global roaming

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng


Products Demo

Prof. Huei-Wen Ferng






















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