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Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CHAPTER 11 . CHAPTER 1. Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology. Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology. What is Epidemiology?. Epidemiology is “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in

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Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology

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CHAPTER 11

CHAPTER 1

Descriptive Research

in Physical Activity

Epidemiology

Descriptive Research

in Physical Activity

Epidemiology


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What is Epidemiology?

Epidemiology is “the study of the distribution and

determinants of health-related states or events in

specified populations, and the application of this study

to the control of health problems” (Last 1988, 141).

•Distribution

-Frequency: Prevalence, incidence, morality rate

-Patterns: Person, place, time

•Determinants: Defined characteristics associated

with change in health

•Application: Translation of knowledge to practice


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Development of Exercise

Epidemiology

•Early studies

-Framingham Heart Study

-London Busmen/British Civil Servants

-Tecumseh Health Study

-Harvard Alumni Health Study

-Minnesota studies

•Healthy People 2010 (U.S. Department of Health

and Human Services)


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Purposes of Epidemilogic

Methods

•Quantifying the magnitude of health problems

•Identifying the factors that cause disease

•Providing quantitative guidance for the allocation

of public health resources

•Monitoring the effectiveness of prevention

strategies using population-wide surveillance

programs


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Key Points in Exercise

Epidemiology

•Observational versus experimental research

•Key terms in exercise epidemiology

-Distribution: Frequency and patterns

-Determinants

•Assessment of physical activity

-Direct measurements

-Questionnaires


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Epidemiologic Study Designs

•Descriptive epidemiology

-Cross-sectional designs

-Ecological designs

•Analytical designs

-Cohort studies

-Case-control studies

•Experimental designs: Randomized trials


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Design in Exercise Epidemiology

•Case-control studies: Select participants from a

group with a disorder and compare with cases

without the disorder

•Cohort studies

-Groups exposed to cause of disorder versus

those not exposed: Relative frequency of

exposure and nonexposure is known

-Sample of cohorts selected from population and

grouped into cases and noncases


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Types of Case-Control

and Cohort Designs

•Retrospective: Look back from effects to potential

causes

•Prospective: Identify an event and follow cases

forward from that event for some period

•Cross-sectional: Measure causes and effects at a

certain point and look at relationships


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