Anatomy physiology and pathology of the lung
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Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the lung. The heart and lung block. Airway Anatomy. Human Lung. Anatomy. Lobes. Bronchopulmonary Segments. Alveolus. Type 1 and Type 11 cells. Surfactant. Physiology. Air in and Air out Gas exchange Saturations Alveolar-arterial gradient

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Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the lung

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Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the lung


The heart and lung block


Airway Anatomy


Human Lung


Anatomy


Lobes


Bronchopulmonary Segments


Alveolus


Type 1 and Type 11 cells


Surfactant


Physiology

  • Air in and Air out

  • Gas exchange

    • Saturations

    • Alveolar-arterial gradient

  • Metabolic

    • Angiotensin 1 to 2 conversion

    • Eicosanoid metabolism


Gas in and out


Peak Flow


Volume Time


Flow Volume Loop


Pathology

  • Think Anatomy

  • Trachea

  • Bronchus

  • Alveolus

    • Endothelium

    • Interstitial space

    • Blood vessels

  • COPD

  • Respiratory Failure

  • O2 and oxygen therapy


Tracheal Pathology


Bronchus Pathology


COPD

  • Pink puffer or Blue Blotter


FVC/FEV1 ratio


Respiratory Failure

  • Respiratory failure is present if PaO2 is less than 8 kPa - 60 mmHg.

  • It is sub-classified into one of two types of respiratory failure based on the level of PaCO2:

  • Type 1 respiratory failure:

    • PaCO2 is less than 6.5 kPa

    • PaO2 less than 8 kPa

  • Type 2 respiratory failure:

    • PaCO2 is greater than 6.5 kPa

    • PaO2 is less than 8 kPa


O2 and oxygen therapy

  • Patients with chronic hypoxia from chronic lung disease

  • Poor PaO2 and good sats

  • Acute unwell hypoxic patients need 100% oxygen


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