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Eustressed or Distressed? Combining Physiology with Observation in User Studies. Avinash Wesley Dr. Peggy Lindner (Co-Advisor) Dr. Ioannis Pavlidis (Advisor). Stress Signs. Introduction Methods Results and Discussion Acknowledgements. Stress Mechanism Motivation Background.

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Eustressed or distressed combining physiology with observation in user studies

Eustressed or Distressed?Combining Physiology withObservation in User Studies

  • Avinash Wesley

  • Dr. Peggy Lindner (Co-Advisor)

  • Dr. IoannisPavlidis (Advisor)


Stress signs
Stress Signs

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Stress Mechanism

  • Motivation

  • Background

  • Peripheral Physiological Measurement of Stress

    • Adrenergic response

      • Elevates heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure

    • Cholinergic response

      • Activates sweat glands on fingers and the perinasal area


Physiology and observation
Physiology and Observation

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Stress Mechanism

  • Motivation

  • Background

  • Perspiratory response are

    • sympathetic in nature

    • Non-specific to positive or negative arousal

Distress

Eustress


Emotions vs performance
Emotions vs. Performance

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Stress Mechanism

  • Motivation

  • Background

  • An important goal in user studies: Study the role of emotions on human performance

  • Emotions can be quantified via physiological response

  • Physiological responses can be disambiguated via observation

Performance

HIGH

Optimal

Alertness

Anxiety

Disorganization

Sleep

LOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

Arousal


Perspiration signal and observation
Perspiration Signal and Observation

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Stress Mechanism

  • Motivation

  • Background

  • Physiology

    • Perspiration extraction method

      in the Thermal Imagery [1]

  • Observational Annotation

    • Traditional done in the Visual Imagery

      • Manual

Courtesy of Science channel

[1] D. Shastri, A. Merla, P. Tsiamyrtzis, and I. Pavlidis. Imaging facial signs of neurophysiological responses. IEEETransactions on Biomedical Engineering, 56(2):477–484, 2009.


Region tracking
Region Tracking

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Facial Expression Recognition

  • Field Study

  • Seven anatomical regions tracked over time by a dynamic template update tracker [2]

[2] Y. Zhou, P. Tsiamyrtzis, and I. Pavlidis. Tissue tracking in thermo-physiological imagery through spatio-temporal smoothing. Proc. of the 12th Int. Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI 2009),5762:1092–1099, 2009.


Pattern classification
Pattern Classification

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Facial Expression Recognition

  • Field Study

  • Feature Vector

  • Classifier

    • Classify five action units (AU1+2, 4, 9, 10, and 12)

    • Multilayer Perceptron

    • 10-fold Cross Validation

d(x,5): Euclidean distance between ROI-x and 5, (x 5)

AU 1+2

Inner + Outer Eyebrow Raise


Surgical training
Surgical Training

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Facial Expression Recognition

  • Field Study

  • Surgeon Pool (n=17)

    • Novices

    • Experienced

  • Tasks

    • Running string (Task-1)

    • Pattern cut (Task-2)

    • Intracorporeal suture (Task-3)

  • Dataset: 977 Thermal Clips


Validation results
Validation Results

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Qualitative Analysis

  • Conclusions

  • Using Thermal Imagery

    • 244 Facial Expressions

    • Ground Truth via Visual annotation

    • Method Accuracy 81.55%

*

Confusion matrix

* Use of visual images instead of thermal images for display purpose only


Results from the field study
Results From The Field Study

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Qualitative Analysis

  • Conclusions

  • Distress is inversely related to experience

    • EN (Perinasal perspiratory signal on portions of negative emotions)

Novice Experienced


Example visualizations
Example Visualizations

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Qualitative Analysis

  • Conclusions

Eustress Distress


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Qualitative Analysis

  • Conclusions

  • The proposed method is

    • Comprehensive (quantitative and qualitative)

    • Economical (single imaging modality with no labor)

  • Conducted a study design that is applicable to a broad class of Human Machine Interaction

  • Future Work

    • Expand the facial expression set

    • Apply the method to more field studies

      • Detection of pain onset-offset


  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results and Discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • Support provided by NSF award # IIS-0812526


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