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Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

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Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

The Quantum Model of the Atom

Louis De Broglie (1924)

- Suggested that electrons can have a dual wave-particle nature
- Confirmed by experiments which showed electrons can undergo diffraction and interference
The Observer in Physics Double Slit Experiment and Example in Nature - YouTube

Werner Heisenberg (1927)

- It is impossible to determine simultaneously the position and velocity of an electron
- Electrons are detected by interaction with photons (photons have similar energy to electrons and thus alter the position of electrons)
Heisenberg's uncertainty – YouTube

Quantum Mechanics: The Uncertainty Principle - YouTube

Erwin Schrodinger (1926)

- Developed an equation which treated electrons as waves.
- Solutions to the equation (wave functions) give the probability of finding an electron in a given location around the nucleus
Atomic orbital– region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found

Quantum Numbers –used to describe the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in those orbitals

- Three quantum numbers are derived from the Schrodinger equation and indicate energy level, orbital shape, and orbital orientation
- One quantum number describes the spin of an electron in an atomic orbital

Principal Quantum Number (n)

- Indicates main energy level occupied by an electron.
- As “n” increases, energy and distance from the nucleus increases

Angular momentum quantum number (l)

- Indicates the shape of the orbital
- Within each energy level, there are sublevels.
# sublevels = n

s – orbital

p - orbitals

d - orbitals

f - orbitals

Magnetic Quantum Number (m)

- Indicates the orientation of the orbital around the nucleus

Spin Quantum Number

- Indicates the spin of an electron in an orbital
Value = + 1/2 or -1/2

- An orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spin.