Arrangement of electrons in atoms
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Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms. The Quantum Model of the Atom. The Quantum Model of the Atom. Louis De Broglie (1924) Suggested that electrons can have a dual wave-particle nature Confirmed by experiments which showed electrons can undergo diffraction and interference

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Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

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Arrangement of electrons in atoms

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

The Quantum Model of the Atom


The quantum model of the atom

The Quantum Model of the Atom

Louis De Broglie (1924)

  • Suggested that electrons can have a dual wave-particle nature

  • Confirmed by experiments which showed electrons can undergo diffraction and interference

    The Observer in Physics Double Slit Experiment and Example in Nature - YouTube


The heisenberg uncertainty principle

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Werner Heisenberg (1927)

  • It is impossible to determine simultaneously the position and velocity of an electron

  • Electrons are detected by interaction with photons (photons have similar energy to electrons and thus alter the position of electrons)

    Heisenberg's uncertainty – YouTube

    Quantum Mechanics: The Uncertainty Principle - YouTube


The schrodinger wave equation

The Schrodinger Wave Equation

Erwin Schrodinger (1926)

  • Developed an equation which treated electrons as waves.

  • Solutions to the equation (wave functions) give the probability of finding an electron in a given location around the nucleus

    Atomic orbital– region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found


Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers

Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

Quantum Numbers –used to describe the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in those orbitals

  • Three quantum numbers are derived from the Schrodinger equation and indicate energy level, orbital shape, and orbital orientation

  • One quantum number describes the spin of an electron in an atomic orbital


Principal quantum number

Principal Quantum Number

Principal Quantum Number (n)

  • Indicates main energy level occupied by an electron.

  • As “n” increases, energy and distance from the nucleus increases


Angular momentum quantum number

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

Angular momentum quantum number (l)

  • Indicates the shape of the orbital

  • Within each energy level, there are sublevels.

    # sublevels = n


Shapes of orbitals

Shapes of Orbitals

s – orbital

p - orbitals


Shapes of orbitals1

Shapes of Orbitals

d - orbitals


Shapes of orbitals2

Shapes of Orbitals

f - orbitals


Magnetic quantum number

Magnetic Quantum Number

Magnetic Quantum Number (m)

  • Indicates the orientation of the orbital around the nucleus


Spin quantum number

Spin Quantum Number

Spin Quantum Number

  • Indicates the spin of an electron in an orbital

    Value = + 1/2 or -1/2

  • An orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spin.


Atomic orbitals

Atomic Orbitals


Orbital energy diagram

Orbital Energy Diagram


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