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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH. Birth to Two Years Birth Neonatal Period Each Month Fourth Month Twelve Months Between 1-2 Years Two Years Old. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH. Birth to Two Years. Two to Six Years 1. Slimmer 2. Proportions.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years
    • Birth
    • Neonatal Period
    • Each Month
    • Fourth Month
    • Twelve Months
    • Between 1-2 Years
    • Two Years Old
slide2

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years
  • Two to Six Years
  • 1. Slimmer
  • 2. Proportions
slide3

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years
  • Two to Six Years
  • C. Seven to 11 Years
  • 1.Slimmer
  • 2. Muscles
  • 3. Lungs
slide4

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years
  • Two to Six Years
  • Seven to 11 Years
  • Puberty
  • 1. Growth & Weight Gain
  • 2. Gonads/Sex Glands
  • 3. Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • 4. Body Composition
  • 5. Circulation and Respiration
slide5

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • A. Birth to Two Years
    • Newborn
    • Five Months
    • Nine Months
    • Twelve Months
slide6

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Birth to Two Years
  • Sources of Variation
    • Environmental Influences
    • Inherited Factors
slide7

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Birth to Two Years
  • Sources of Variation
  • Two to Six Years
    • Speed
    • Coordination
    • Gross Motor Development
slide8

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Birth to Two Years
  • Sources of Variation
  • Two to Six Years
    • Speed
    • Coordination
    • Gross Motor Development
    • Fine Motor Development
slide9

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Fine Motor Skills

slide10

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Birth to Two Years
  • Sources of Variation
  • Two to Six Years
  • Seven to Eleven Years
  • 1. Motor Skills
  • 2. Reaction Time
slide11

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Brain Growth Spurt– Period between the seventh prenatal month and 2 years of age when more than half of the child’s eventual brain weight is added.

Brain Growth Spurt

Begins

Here

slide12

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.

slide13

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.

Neurons – nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses

slide14

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.

Neurons – nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses

Glia – nerve cells that nourish neurons and encase them in insulating sheaths of myelin.

slide15

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions Cont’d:

Synaptogenesis – formation of connections (synapses) among neurons.

Plasticity – capacity for change; a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience.

slide16

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions Cont’d:

Synaptic pruning – surviving neurons that are stimulated less often lose their synapses.

slide17

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • About Brain Development
  • Brain Stem and Midbrain– most mature at birth
  • - consciousness - reflexes - respiration - digestion - elimination
slide18

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • About Brain Development
  • Surrounding Midbrain are the Cerebrum & Cerebral Cortex
    • - movement - perception - learning - language - thinking
slide19

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Earliest Maturing areas of the cerebrum are the Primary Motor & Sensory Areas

Darker, dot-like areas mature first, then the lined areas, and finally the clear areas develop in adolescence

slide21

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Neural Development & Plasticity

  • Lateralization
  • Evident from birth
  • Increases with age
  • Get better with age at integrating functions of each hemisphere
  • Dyslexia
slide22

ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition
  • Problems of Under nutrition:
  • Catch-up growth
  • Marasmus (insufficient protein & calories)
  • Kwashiorkor (insufficient protein, but sufficient calories)
  • Vitamin & mineral deficiencies
  • Iron deficiency anemia
slide23

ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition
  • Problems of OVER nutrition:
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart, liver & kidney disease
  • Social impact
slide24

ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition
  • Illnesses
  • Emotional Stress/Lack of Affection
  • Nonorganic failure to thrive
  • Deprivation dwarfism
slide25

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty

Adolescent Growth Spurt: the rapid increase in physical growth that marks the beginning of adolescence.

Puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child.

slide26

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child.

Also refers to the physical changes that occur as child passes from child to adult.

slide27

CHANGES IN PUBERTY

  • Rapid growth/Weight Gain
  • Further development of gonads
  • Secondary sexual characteristics
  • Changes in muscle/fat compositions
  • Changes in circulatory & respiratory systems
slide28

WHAT CAUSES PUBERTY?

  • All of these changes triggered by hormones
  • No new hormones produced at puberty
  • Increase of hormones
    • Testosterone
    • Estrogen
    • Growth Hormone
slide29

Hormonal Influences on Development

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

Adrenal Glands

Thyroid

Testes

Ovaries

Growth Hormone

Androgen

Testosterone

Estrogen

Thyroxine

Male reprod. organs before birth

Maturation of male organs

Voice,facial & body hair, muscle dev., bone growth, broad shoulders

General growth of body tissues

Adolescent growth spurt

Female reprod. Organs

Breasts, hips

Body hair

Early brain growth

Bone growth

Muscular growth

Bone growth

slide30

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty

Girls

Boys

slide32

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • GIRLS:
  • Begins about age 11 (breasts)
  • Menstruation about age 13
  • Fertility (at or after menstruation)
slide33

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • BOYS:
  • Begins about age 11 or 12 (testes enlarge)
  • Fertility about age 14.5 or 15
  • VARIATIONS IN TIMING OF PUBERTY (BOYS & GIRLS)
  • Heredity (identical twins similar timing)
  • Environment
slide34

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Psychosocial Influences of Puberty
  • Boys that mature earlier
  • Girls that mature “on-time”
slide35

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • U.S. rates = +1 million/year
  • 50% miscarriage or abortion
  • 2 million babies next 4 years
  • 2X higher in U.S.
slide36

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • CONSEQUENCES for Mom:
  • Loss of education
  • Loss of social network
  • Lower income
  • Lifestyle changes
slide37

SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • CONSEQUENCES for Baby
  • Higher probability of:
  • Prematurity
  • Drug exposure
  • Poor nutrition
  • Less sensitive/experienced mom
  • Intellectual deficits
  • Emotional disturbances
  • Economically disadvantaged
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