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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH. Birth to Two Years Birth Neonatal Period Each Month Fourth Month Twelve Months Between 1-2 Years Two Years Old. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH. Birth to Two Years. Two to Six Years 1. Slimmer 2. Proportions.

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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: MATURATION AND GROWTH

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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years

    • Birth

    • Neonatal Period

    • Each Month

    • Fourth Month

    • Twelve Months

    • Between 1-2 Years

    • Two Years Old


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Two to Six Years

  • 1. Slimmer

  • 2. Proportions


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Two to Six Years

  • C. Seven to 11 Years

  • 1.Slimmer

  • 2. Muscles

  • 3. Lungs


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

MATURATION AND GROWTH

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Two to Six Years

  • Seven to 11 Years

  • Puberty

  • 1. Growth & Weight Gain

  • 2. Gonads/Sex Glands

  • 3. Secondary Sex Characteristics

  • 4. Body Composition

  • 5. Circulation and Respiration


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • A. Birth to Two Years

    • Newborn

    • Five Months

    • Nine Months

    • Twelve Months


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Sources of Variation

    • Environmental Influences

    • Inherited Factors


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Sources of Variation

  • Two to Six Years

    • Speed

    • Coordination

    • Gross Motor Development


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Sources of Variation

  • Two to Six Years

    • Speed

    • Coordination

    • Gross Motor Development

    • Fine Motor Development


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Fine Motor Skills


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • Birth to Two Years

  • Sources of Variation

  • Two to Six Years

  • Seven to Eleven Years

  • 1. Motor Skills

  • 2. Reaction Time


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Brain Growth Spurt– Period between the seventh prenatal month and 2 years of age when more than half of the child’s eventual brain weight is added.

Brain Growth Spurt

Begins

Here


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.

Neurons – nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions:

Synapse – the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another.

Neurons – nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses

Glia – nerve cells that nourish neurons and encase them in insulating sheaths of myelin.


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions Cont’d:

Synaptogenesis – formation of connections (synapses) among neurons.

Plasticity – capacity for change; a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience.


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN:

Neural Development and Plasticity

Some Basic Definitions Cont’d:

Synaptic pruning – surviving neurons that are stimulated less often lose their synapses.


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • About Brain Development

  • Brain Stem and Midbrain– most mature at birth

  • - consciousness - reflexes - respiration - digestion - elimination


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  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

  • About Brain Development

  • Surrounding Midbrain are the Cerebrum & Cerebral Cortex

    • - movement - perception - learning - language - thinking


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Earliest Maturing areas of the cerebrum are the Primary Motor & Sensory Areas

Darker, dot-like areas mature first, then the lined areas, and finally the clear areas develop in adolescence


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Neural Development & Plasticity

  • Lateralization

  • Evident from birth

  • Increases with age

  • Get better with age at integrating functions of each hemisphere

  • Dyslexia


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  • ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition

  • Problems of Under nutrition:

  • Catch-up growth

  • Marasmus (insufficient protein & calories)

  • Kwashiorkor (insufficient protein, but sufficient calories)

  • Vitamin & mineral deficiencies

  • Iron deficiency anemia


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  • ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition

  • Problems of OVER nutrition:

  • Obesity

  • Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart, liver & kidney disease

  • Social impact


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  • ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • Nutrition

  • Illnesses

  • Emotional Stress/Lack of Affection

  • Nonorganic failure to thrive

  • Deprivation dwarfism


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty

Adolescent Growth Spurt: the rapid increase in physical growth that marks the beginning of adolescence.

Puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child.


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child.

Also refers to the physical changes that occur as child passes from child to adult.


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  • CHANGES IN PUBERTY

  • Rapid growth/Weight Gain

  • Further development of gonads

  • Secondary sexual characteristics

  • Changes in muscle/fat compositions

  • Changes in circulatory & respiratory systems


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  • WHAT CAUSES PUBERTY?

  • All of these changes triggered by hormones

  • No new hormones produced at puberty

  • Increase of hormones

    • Testosterone

    • Estrogen

    • Growth Hormone


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Hormonal Influences on Development

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

Adrenal Glands

Thyroid

Testes

Ovaries

Growth Hormone

Androgen

Testosterone

Estrogen

Thyroxine

Male reprod. organs before birth

Maturation of male organs

Voice,facial & body hair, muscle dev., bone growth, broad shoulders

General growth of body tissues

Adolescent growth spurt

Female reprod. Organs

Breasts, hips

Body hair

Early brain growth

Bone growth

Muscular growth

Bone growth


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty

Girls

Boys


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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • GIRLS:

  • Begins about age 11 (breasts)

  • Menstruation about age 13

  • Fertility (at or after menstruation)


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • BOYS:

  • Begins about age 11 or 12 (testes enlarge)

  • Fertility about age 14.5 or 15

  • VARIATIONS IN TIMING OF PUBERTY (BOYS & GIRLS)

  • Heredity (identical twins similar timing)

  • Environment


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Psychosocial Influences of Puberty

  • Boys that mature earlier

  • Girls that mature “on-time”


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy

  • U.S. rates = +1 million/year

  • 50% miscarriage or abortion

  • 2 million babies next 4 years

  • 2X higher in U.S.


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy

  • CONSEQUENCES for Mom:

  • Loss of education

  • Loss of social network

  • Lower income

  • Lifestyle changes


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  • SEXUAL MATURATION

  • Teenage Pregnancy

  • CONSEQUENCES for Baby

  • Higher probability of:

  • Prematurity

  • Drug exposure

  • Poor nutrition

  • Less sensitive/experienced mom

  • Intellectual deficits

  • Emotional disturbances

  • Economically disadvantaged


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