The phoenicians
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The Phoenicians. Phoenicia was located in Southwest Asia. Phoenician Coastal Plain. Tyre. Phoenicians. The Phoenicians were a Semitic-speaking people. They settled in small city-states in present-day Lebanon. There were few natural resources in their land. So, they turned to the seas.

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The Phoenicians

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The Phoenicians

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Phoenicia was located in Southwest Asia.

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Phoenician Coastal Plain

  • Tyre

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Phoenicians

  • The Phoenicians were a Semitic-speaking people.

  • They settled in small city-states in present-day Lebanon.

  • There were few natural resources in their land. So, they turned to the seas.

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History

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  • 3000 BC=> First Phoenician settlement

  • 1800 BC=> Under Egyptian control

  • 1600 BC=> Trading with foreign cities

  • 1400 BC=> Under Hittite control

  • 1200 BC=> Independent & colonizing

  • 800 BC=> Under Assyrians

  • 585 BC=> Conquered by Nebuchadnezzar

  • 332 BC=> Conquered by Alexander

  • 64 BC=> Absorbed into Roman empire

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The Phoenicians:Sailors of the Mediterranean

The Phoenicians settled on the Mediterranean Sea. They were part of the fertile crescent that extended from Mesopotamia to Egypt and beyond.

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The Phoenicians were seafaring traders.

They sailed the Mediterranean sea.

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Phoenician Traders

  • By 900 B.C., the Phoenicians dominated Mediterranean trade.

  • The Phoenicians were able to build a civilization without relying on agriculture.

  • Income generated by trade allowed the Phoenicians to build permanent settlements.

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Mediterranean as a Cultural Petri Dish/Cultural Diffusion

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Murex snail

(or sea snail /

Murex Trunculus)

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Tyrian purple Quick Details Source: Murex Trunculus
Colour: PurplePlace of Origin: Phoenicia 
 Name of the colour:Tyrian royal purple

this pigment / colour is extracted from sea snails called ''Murex Trunculus’’

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Glass

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CEDAR TREES

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Crafts

  • Tyre was famous for arts & crafts

  • crafts in stone, metal, glass, etc.

  • objects of gold, ivory, silver or glass

  • for temples and tombs

  • found throughout the Mediterranean region

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Crafts

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Trade: EXPORT

  • Leading sailors and traders of ancient world

  • They traded:

    • Cloth

    • Dye (purple dye made from shellfish murex)

    • Glass

    • Pottery

    • Cedar trees

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Amphora: Originate on Phoenician Coast carry wine, olive oil, dye

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Underwater Archeology: Phoenician Shipwrecks

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Underwater Archeology: Phoenician Shipwrecks

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Trade: IMPORT

  • Traded for:

    • Tin (Britannia)

    • Hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, and slaves (Africa)

    • Gold, precious stones, and spices (India)

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COINS, MONEY

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These are Phoenician coins.

Phoenician money was minted

by individual cities.

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The World’s First Alphabet

  • The Phoenicians invented the world’s first alphabet.

  • Each of the twenty-two Phoenician alphabet symbols represented a different sound.

  • The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet. From the Phoenician and Greek alphabets come our alphabet.

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An alphabet based on symbols

representing sounds is easier to learn

than the use of characters.

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A is for Ox!

A

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This is what really happened!

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H is for ‘fence’

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Phoenician was an important 'trunk' of the alphabet tree

118

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Inventions

Alphabet of consonants

Papyrus paper

Keeled hull

Technological

Advancements

  • Use of the North Star

  • Method of charting ship speed

  • Maps and charts

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Navigation and Seafaring

  • Established commercial supremacy

  • Phoenicians are credited with discovery and use of Polaris

  • Ventured where others would not

  • Carefully guarded secrets of their trade routes and discoveries and knowledge of winds and currents

  • Made up stories of sea monsters and the dangers of sea travel

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Trireme: warship with battering ram

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Protection from pirates

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Pillars of Hercules: The End of the Known World

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How much Phoenician Exploration?

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Did the Phoenicians circumnavigate Africa?

  • Some historians believe that this was possible

  • Ancient Greek historian Herodotus says Phoenicians sailed into the Red Sea

  • Since Phoenician sailors kept their sea travel knowledge secret there is little historical evidence.

  • Having the ability to do something, and doing it are two separate things.

  • Zheng He and the Chinese Treasure Fleets

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Papyrus Boat: Ra II 1970

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Thor Hyerdal and Ra

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Phoenician Colonies

  • The Phoenicians established trading colonies throughout the Mediterranean region.

  • A colony is a region controlled by a distant country.

  • Carthage was a famous Phoenician trading colony in North Africa.

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The Phoenicians established many colonies.

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Religion

116

In various cities these deities were known by different names:

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Government

Area divided into city-states

Loose union

Kings appear to be the oldest form of government in the area.

Royal houses claimed “Devine Consent.”

Kings could not be chosen by outside members.

King’s power was limited by powerful merchant families

Some areas had a council of elders

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Leaders

There were kings of each city-state.

King Rib-Addi of Byblos

King Abi-Miliki of Tyre

King Zimrida of Sidon

Custom for kings to be of royal blood.

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  • Israelite King Omri allied with the Phoenician cities of the coast.

  • Omri’s son, Ahab, married jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, King of Tyre, and Sidon.

MORE KINGS 

  • Abibaal-Tyre-(ended 981 BC.)

  • King Hiram-Tyre(980-947 BC.)  [enemy of Philistines, ally of Israelites]

  • Baal-Eser I-(946-930 BC.)

  • Abdastartus (929-921 BC.)

  • Astartus (920-901 BC.)

  • Deleastartus (900-889 BC.)

  • Astarymus (888-880 BC.)

  • Phelles-(879 BC.)(only for 8 months)

  • Ithobaal I-Tyre- (878-847 BC.)

  • Baal-Eser II –Tyre- (846-841 BC.)

  • Mattan I –Tyre- (840-832 BC.)

  • Azemilcus-Tyre- (332 BC.)

  • Abdalonymus –Sidon- (332 BC.)

  • Eshmunazar {Name of several Kings of Sidon}

  • Luli –Tyre- (729-694 BC.)

  • Abdi-Milkutti –Tyre- (680-677 BC.)

    OTHER

  • Ammunira –Beirut- Mid 14th Century BC.

  • Zakar-Baal –Byblos- during the 11th Century BC.

  • Abdemon –Cyrpus- End of the 5th Century BC.

  • Ribttadda – Byblos-

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Travel and trade encouraged cultural

diffusion.

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Significance of Phoenicia

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EUROPE

Phoenicians were the first to show that colonization can be done over international waters

ASIA MINOR

(Tarshish)

AFRICA

They introduced many products throughout the Mediterranean.

Phoenician Shipping Routes

Land of Phoenicia

Trade Routes

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