The rise of hitler
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THE RISE OF HITLER. The Rise of Hitler – the Early Years. 1923 Failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch. 1924 Wrote Mein Kampf While in prison. July 1932 Hitler becomes Head of largest Political party In German Parliament. 1921 Becomes leader Of the Nazi Party. 1919 Joined the German

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THE RISE OF HITLER

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The rise of hitler

THE RISE OF HITLER


The rise of hitler the early years

The Rise of Hitler – the Early Years

1923

Failed Munich

Beer Hall Putsch

1924

Wrote

Mein Kampf

While in prison

July 1932

Hitler becomes

Head of largest

Political party

In German

Parliament

1921

Becomes leader

Of the Nazi Party

1919

Joined the German

Worker's Party


The rise of hitler

Jan. 1933

HITLER

BECAME

CHANCELLOR

Feb. 1933

THE

REICHSTAG

FIRE

March 1933

THE

ENABLING

ACT

Der Fuhrer

Aug.1934

OATH OF

LOYALTY

TO

HITLER

Aug. 19, 1934

“democratically” elected President.

Aug. 2 1934

BECOMES

PRESIDENT

OF GERMANY

June 1934

THE NIGHT

OF THE

LONG

KNIVES

Aug. 1934

DEATH OF

PRESIDENT

HINDENBURG


Rise of hitler background

Rise of Hitler - background

  • 1919 – Hitler is ordered to investigate the German Worker's Party – fear of communism led the German military to fear the term "workers" as it was associated with communism.

  • Instead of investigating, he is asked, and decides to, join.


Rise of hitler 1921

Rise of Hitler - 1921

  • Hitler becomes leader of the Nazi Party.

  • Gives the party the symbol of the Swastika.

  • Uses “heil” as the party greeting.

  • Creates a group of paramilitary followers – the Brown Shirt wearing Sturmabteilung, or the SA, aka “STORMTROOPERS”;

  • Creates private guards, the Schutzstaffel, or the SS “PROTECTION SQUAD”.


Rise of hitler 1923

Rise of Hitler - 1923

  • MUNICH BEER HALL PUTSCH

  • With a group of ex-soldiers, Hitler and the Nazis planned to seize control of Munich and then march on Berlin (like Mussolini’s March on Rome) and overthrow the government;

  • Hitler loses his nerve and spends most of the time giving speeches in a beer hall.

  • He is arrested and sentenced to five years in prison (he spent only nine months there). It is here where he writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle).


Rise of hitler 1923 1924

Rise of Hitler – 1923-1924

  • Hitler writes Mein Kampf while in prison

    • Over 5 million copies sold;

    • Wrote about the common miseries of the German people (poverty, economy, Versailles, etc.)

    • Blames all Germany’s problems on the Jews;

    • Introduces the need for “living space” in Europe.

    • Promotes the global rule by the Aryan race, the “master race”.

    • Books were spread as part of Nazi propaganda; soldiers and newlyweds received free copies.


Rise of hitler july 1932

Rise of Hitler – July 1932

  • In the 1932 elections, the Nazi party promises jobs, to sort out the economy, and to make Germany proud and strong again.

  • These promises allow the Nazi party win 37% of the vote, or 230 seats in the Reichstag.

  • This made the Nazi party the largest and most powerful in Germany, with Hitler as their leader.


How did hitler turn the chancellorship into a dictatorship by 1934

How did Hitler turn the Chancellorship into a dictatorship by 1934?


The rise of hitler

The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis. In 1933 Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor.

Hitler became

Chancellor

January 1933


The rise of hitler

The Reichstag Fire

February 1933


The rise of hitler

The Reichstag Fire

  • The Reichstag building burnt down.

  • A communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility (though the fire is believed to have been a Nazi idea as well).

  • Chancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorism.

  • He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag.

  • The fire became Hitler’s tool to rid Germany of the Communist threat.

February 1933


The rise of hitler

The Enabling Act

With the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass: THE ENABLING ACT

HITLER CAN

RULE ALONE

FOR FOUR

YEARS. THERE

IS NO NEED TO

CONSULT THE

REICHSTAG

WITH REGARDS

TO ANY

POLITICAL

DECISIONS.

March 1933


The rise of hitler

THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES!

KPD

SPD

SPD- Social DemocratsKPD- CommunistsDDP- German DemocraticZentrum- German Centre Party (Catholic)

DDP

Zentrum


The rise of hitler

Political prisoners

were put in

concentration camps

run by the S.S.


The rise of hitler

The Night of the Long Knives

Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. Ernst Rohm (an old friend), head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders. They have the power to overthrow me.I’ve been worried about Rohm for a while, so this is a good excuse.

June 1934


The night of the long knives

The Night of the Long Knives

  • Hitler had to get rid of Rohm. He was too much of a threat.

  • On the night of 30th June 1934 Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including Rohm.

  • The army were pleased.

  • Hitler had gained the support of the army.


The rise of hitler

The death of

President Hindenburg

A final note

PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S

DEATH GAVE HITLER THE

OPPORTUNITY TO COMBINE

THE ROLE OF CHANCELLOR

AND PRESIDENT. HE CALLED

HIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’.

August 1934


The rise of hitler

Oath of loyalty

to Adolf Hitler

Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.


The rise of hitler

So, how did he become

a dictator legally?


The rise of hitler

Jan. 1933

HITLER

BECAME

CHANCELLOR

Feb. 1933

THE

REICHSTAG

FIRE

March 1933

THE

ENABLING

ACT

Der Fuhrer

Aug.1934

OATH OF

LOYALTY

TO

HITLER

Aug. 19, 1934

“democratically” elected President.

Aug. 2 1934

BECOMES

PRESIDENT

OF GERMANY

June 1934

THE NIGHT

OF THE

LONG

KNIVES

Aug. 1934

DEATH OF

PRESIDENT

HINDENBURG


Why were people so willing to accept hitler

WHY WERE PEOPLE SO WILLING TO ACCEPT HITLER?


Reasons for the acceptance of hitler

Reasons for the Acceptance of Hitler

GERMANS:

  • The Treaty of Versailles;

  • Economic Problems: Inflation;

  • Political Instability;

  • Depression and Unemployment

  • Nazi Controls

THE REST OF THE WORLD:

  • The Treaty of Versailles;

  • Fear of Communism


The treaty of versailles

The Treaty of Versailles

  • In his book “Mein Kampf”, he outlined his master plan.


The treaty of versailles1

The Treaty of Versailles

  • A tough peace agreement to humiliate Germany;

  • Ensured that Germany would remain weak and never wage another war (loss of colonies and territories, and depletion of the military);

  • Made the German people feel humiliated;

  • Made it difficult for the German economy to recover;

  • The new countries created led to boundary problems: Germans lived in parts of the newly created countries, and people in Germany claimed these regions should be part of Germany;


The rhineland

The Polish Corridor

Contained a mixed population of Poles and Germans; taken from Germany and given to Poland; gave Poland access to the sea via Danzig, a major seaport inhabited by Germans.

Polish Corridor

Belgium

Poland

France

Switz.

The Rhineland

Austria

The Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia

Still legally part of Germany, but Germany was not allowed to have any military stationed there to protect France from another German attack.

Austrians were ethnically German and many hoped to unite with Germany.

Granted to Czechoslovakia but it contained approx. 3 million Germans and bordered Germany. Also contained raw materials, such as coal, iron and a powerful armaments industry.


Economic problems inflation

Economic Problems: Inflation

  • Germany borrowed large sums of money for WW1;

  • To pay off debts, the German government printed off more money, making its value decrease;

  • In 1922, $1US = $300Marks;

  • In 1923, $1US = $50000Marks.

Things were so bad, workers were often seen bringing their wages home in wheelbarrows.


The rise of hitler

  • Inflation 1923-24: A German woman feeding a stove with currency notes, which burn longer than the amount of firewood they can buy.


Depression and unemployment

Depression and Unemployment

  • Depression was worldwide, so no one could purchase German manufactured goods or lend them money to help sustain the economy;

  • Led to desperation

  • Hitler promised full employment, higher wages, and better living conditions to the German people.


Political instability

Political Instability

  • After WW1, there were more than one dozen political parties;

  • Parties fell into 3 general groups:

    • Communists (government run by councils of workers);

    • Social Democrats (government run by elected representatives from all parties);

    • National Socialists, or Nazis (government run by the military and the wealthy).

  • Because there were so many parties, no one party could win a majority;

  • As conditions worsened, more people were willing to listen to the Nazi party’s extremist voices.

  • 'One People, One Nation, One Leader!'


    Nazi controls

    Nazi Controls


    The rise of hitler

    • As the Nazis acquired more power, they slowly controlled everything that Germans did:

      • used propaganda to convince the German Aryan population

      • that they were the “master race”;

      • eliminated any and all political opposition;

      • forced all young men between the ages of 14 and 18 to join the Hitler Youth movement (HJ) – in Dec. 1936, this was mandatory, even if the parents disagreed.

      • ruled through military force and fear.


    Nazi military state

    Nazi Military State

    • GESTAPO: the Secret State Police

    • SS(Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA

    • SA (Sturmabteilung):Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties

    • Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east

    • Wehrmacht: German army

    • HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth

    • Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units

    • Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs)


    The rise of hitler

    Germany 1933-1935

    • Trade unions banned, May 1933, leaders sent to the newly created concentration camps.

    • Conscription to provide employment for thousands of unemployed young men. 1935.

    • Army and navy expanded. Creates jobs in munitions factories.

    • Public works projects. Highways, buildings.

    • Bad Things

    • Enemies killed, or sent to camps.

    • Anti-Semitism encouraged.

    • Teachers lose their jobs for not teaching Nazi racial theories.

    • “Unsafe” books burned.

    • Marriages between Aryans and non-Aryans were forbidden.

    • No more democratic elections.

    • Many German women were compelled to give up their jobs and stay home raising children.


    The rise of hitler

    “The Eternal Jew”Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.

    This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.


    Why war again

    Why War Again??

    • Beginning in early 1930s, Germany, Italy and Japan all began campaigns to acquire territory

    • Alleviated depression in their countries by military buildup

    • Other nations, burned out by WWI, were reluctant to stop them


    Steps to war

    Steps to War

    • Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of World War II?

    • How did appeasement contribute to World War II?

    • Why did the League of Nations fail?

    • What role did “isolationism” play?

    • Could Hitler have been ‘contained’ at any time prior to 1939?

    • How did World War II begin? What were the steps to war?


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