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Selecting E fficient I nstructional T echniques for Culturally D iverse C lassroom s. Cultural Diversity in New York City Classrooms. Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder Education 7201: Seminar in Applied Theory and Research I Fall 2011. Table of Contents.

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Selecting e fficient i nstructional t echniques for culturally d iverse c lassroom s

Selecting Efficient Instructional Techniques for Culturally Diverse Classrooms

Cultural Diversity in New York City Classrooms

  • Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder

  • Education 7201: Seminar in Applied Theory and Research I

  • Fall 2011


Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    • Statement of the Problem (slide 3)

      • Supporting Theorists (slide 4 and 5)

        • Pros (Slide 6)

          • Cons (Slide 7)

            • Instructional Strategies (Slide 8)

              • Statement of the Hypothesis (Slide 9)

                • Conclusion (Slide 10)

                  • References (Slide 11-15)


Statement of the problem

Statement of the Problem

  • New York City is one of the most diverse cities.  All five boroughs are filled with children from diverse backgrounds and cultures.

  • The need for teachers to relate to student’s cultural backgrounds is important (Meachum, 2001).

  • Several studies have shown, that student’s culture plays a crucial role in the way they learn and view the world (Lanson-Billings, 1995).


Supporting theorists

Supporting Theorists

  • Lev Vygotsky :

  • Affirms that learning does not take place in cognitive isolation, but within the context of activities and social interaction likely informed by the day-to- day contingencies of culture.

  • Suggests school learning is largely informed by the interaction between the conceptual domains of the home and the school.

  • States that regardless of cultural background, the most effective school learning occurs when learning assumptions in the home or “spontaneous” conceptual domain, are meaningfully connected to the assumptions encountered in the school, the “schooled” conceptual domain.(Meacham 2001)


Supporting theorists continued

Supporting Theorists (continued)

  • James A.Banks:

  • James A. Banks points out that cultural diversity, “enriches a nation by providing all citizens with rich opportunities to experience other cultures and thus to become more fulfilled as human beings. When individuals are able to participate in a variety cultures, they are more able to benefit from the total human experience” (Banks, 2008).

  • The goal of multicultural education is:

  • To help individuals gain greater self-understanding by viewing themselves from the perspectives of other cultures.

  • To assume that with acquaintance and understanding respect may fellow.

  • To provide students with cultural, ethnic, and language alternatives.

    (Banks, 2008)


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

Culturally relevant pedagogy has been defined:

as a means to use students’ cultures and strengths to bridge school achievement ( 2008; Singer 2010; Blake 1997; Jones 1985;Vijaker 2001;Wurzel, Holt 1991; McClean 1996).

to recognize students’ home cultures, promote collaboration among peers, hold high standards, and connect home life with school experiences (Young 2010;Chisholm 1994; Montgomery 2010)

Siwatu (2007) stipulated that there is general agreement among culturally responsive pedagogues insofar as how the theory is used.(Ladson-Billings 1995; Silva , Langhout 2011;Morrison, Robbins 2008)

Pros


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

How multicultural classroom instruction is undermining our children's ability to read, write, and reason, multiculturalism is quite the norm in America's elementary schools.

(Hymowitz, 1999; Morgan 2010; Zhang 2001; Schultz 2010).

James A. Banks, argues that multicultural education is damaging and unimportant to the students’ growth and development (Banks, 2008). 

Sleeter, argues that we should focus our attention on other “pressing concerns, such as increasing students’ test scores (Sleeter, 2000). 

Hymowitz mentioned that Sandra Stotsky, a well-known multiculturalists and author of a book entitled, Losing Our Language, that instead of focusing on cultural diversity, which is “dull and preachy” we should help students with “vocabulary building” (Hymowitz, 1999).

Cons


Instructional strategies storybooks

Instructional Strategies: Storybooks

  • According to Greif, Kim, and Klein (2006), the increasing diversity in the U.S. school system has led to a growing body of scholarly literature on ways that counselors can effectively meet the culture-related challenges posed by this change.

  • Baghban (2007) indicated that many immigrant children face dilemmas when they move to a new country. She added that “classroom materials relevant to the social and cultural experiences generate interest in and enthusiasm about learning.” (Baghban, 2007).


Examples of storybooks

Examples of Storybooks

Used as instructional strategies for the implementation of cultural relevant pedagogy into the curriculum.


Statement of the hypothesis

Statement of the Hypothesis

  • HR¹:To implement multicultural literacy instruction to twenty first grade students, for 45 minutes per day in the morning over a 4 week period. This will increase student’s knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity as measured by a comprehensive social studies test.


Method

Method

  • Participants

  • Students will be chosen from two different ethnic groups consisting of African-Americans and Russians from two different New York City public schools in Brooklyn, N.Y. One of the schools is located in a low- income neighborhood in Bedford Stuyvesant, with a population of 78.8% African-Americans. The other school is located in a middle class neighborhood near Brighton Beach, with a European population of 72.7% of students in attendance.

  • Instruments

  • Student’s assessments will be measured according to their responses to assignments without their cultural information included, and conducting similar assignments by incorporating student’s cultural aspects into them. This will consist of conducting a pretest, post-test, and surveys to measure and monitor student’s progress and achievements. In addition, consent forms will be utilized to ensure that the students are granted permission to participate in this study from their parents, teachers, principals, and administrators.  


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Banks (2008), claimed that “diversity enriches a nation and increases the ways in which its citizens can perceive and solve personal and public problems” (Banks, 2008).

  • Vygotsky (2001), affirms that learning does not take place in cognitive isolation, but within the context of activities and social interaction likely informed by the day-to- day contingencies of culture (Meacham, 2001).


References

References

  • Baghban, M. (2007). Immigration in childhood: using picture books to cope: A journal for readers, students and teachers of history. The Social Studies, Volume98, 71-76. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ethnicnewswatch/docview/274852603/132B75C0EDE3A7EF5CE/2?accountid=7286.

  • Banks, A. J., & Banks, A. M. C. (2010). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.  Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304399469?accountid=7286.

  • Blake, R. A. (1997). Teacher actions to infuse multiculturalism into the planned curriculum of elementary school classes with ethnically diverse students. University of Hartford. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.  Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304399469?accountid=7286

  • Bruner, J. (1997). Celebrating divergence: Piaget and Vygotsky. Development-Basel Retrieved from http://people.ucsc.edu/~gwells/Files/Courses_Folder/ED%20261%20Papers/Bruner_Piaget-Vygotsky.

  • Buettner, L. N. (2003). How teachers' beliefs and understanding of multiculturalism influence instructional strategies used in classrooms.University of the Pacific. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305310472?accountid=7286. 


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

  • Chisholm, M. I. (1994). Preparing teachers for multicultural classrooms. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 14,48-56. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpolicy.org/ArchivedWebsites/chisholm.htm.

  • Clott, A. D. (2010). Conflict behavior in the diverse classroom.Department of education methodology, policy and leadership. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.  Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/847949500?accountid=7286.

  • DomNwachukwu, C.S. (2005). Standards-based planning and teaching in a multicultural classroom. Multicultural Education, Volume 13(1), 40-44. Retrieved from ERIC database.

  • Greif Green, J. L., Kim, S. K. B., & Klein, E. F. (2006). Using storybooks to promote multicultural sensitivity in elementary school children. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, Volume 34(4), 223-234. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/235997477?accountid=7286

  • Honigsfeld, A. (2009). Capitalizing on students’ learning styles: design the best teaching strategies. Insights on Learning Disabilities,Volume 6 (1), 13-20. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f307acd4-1678-416d-a179-2dc3fb80053f%40sessionmgr10&vid=8&hid=19.


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

  • Hymowitz, K. S. (1999). Multicultural illiteracy. The Public Interest. 124-128. Retrieved from http://www.nationalaffairs.com/doclib/20080709_19991359multiculturalilliteracykayshymowitz.pdf

  • Jones, D. (1985). Teaching about Russia. Educational Leadership, 61-63. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=24&sid=be12fb36-b8db-4659-91f7-852898c4b16d%40sessionmgr12.

  • Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy . American Educational Research Journal, Voulme 32(3),465-491. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1163320.

  • Mc Clean, M. (1996). Creating a multicultural community in the classroom. Caribbean Today, Volume 13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196881141?accountid=7286.

  • Meacham, S. J. (2001). Vygotsky and the Blues: Re-reading cultural connections and conceptual development. Theory Into Practice,Volume 40(3), 190-196. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/1477475.


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

  • Montgomery, C. M. (2009). Caught between regulations and meaning: Fifth grade students and their teachers respond to multicultural children's literature. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Montgomery%20Connie%20M.pdf?osu1245202435.  

  • Morgan, H. (2010). Improving schooling for cultural minorities: The right teaching styles can make a big difference. Educational Horizons, 114-20. Retrieved from http://www.electricprint.com/edu4/classes/readings/294readings/learningstyles.pdf.

  • Morrison, K. A., Robbins, H. H., & Rose D. G. (2008). Operationalizing culturally relevant pedagogy: A synthesis of classroom-based research. Equity and Excellence in Education, Volume 41(4), 433-452. Retrieved from ERIC database.

  • Schultz, S. (2010). Judging a book by its cover: An evaluation tool for the evaluation, selection and inclusion of multicultural children’s literature in the elementary classroom. Multicultural Children's Literature. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED511031.pdf.

  • Silva, J. M., & Langhout, R. (2011). Cultivating agents of change in children. Theory and Research in Social Education, Volume 39(1),61-91. Retrieved from http://www.socialstudies.org/publications/theoryandresearch.

  • Singer, A. (2010). Why multiculturalism still matters. Race, Gender & Class, Volume 17(1), 10-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/312320874?accountid=7286.


Cultural diversity in new york city classrooms

  • Sleeter, C. E. (2000). Creating and empowering multicultural curriculum. Race, Gender & Class in Education, Volume 7(3), 178-96. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/docview/218830848/131F3593F0F17DACC4D/2?accountid=7286. 

  • Wurzel, J. S., & Holt, W. (1991). Teaching aids for multicultural education. Communication Education, Volume40(3), 286-91. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=24&sid=f6d453a2-7a18-4dcb-80ac-15aa17cca81a%40sessionmgr12.

  • Vijaykar, M. (2001). The new Americans: A universal curriculum can counter racism. India Currents, Volume 15(8), 12-12. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/194649002?accountid=7286.

  • Young, E. (2010). Challenges to conceptualizing and actualizing culturally relevant pedagogy: how viable is the theory in classroom practice? Journal of Teaching Education, Volume61(3), 248-60. Retrieved from ERIC database.

  • Zhang, J. X. (2001). Cultural diversity in instructional design. International Journal of Instructional Media, Volume 28(3),299-307. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/results_single.jhtml;hwwilsonid=FI2Y2MLEGP1WVQA3DIMCFGOADUNGIIV0.


Appendices

Appendices

Appendix A: Parent/Guardian Consent Form

Dear Parent/Guardian,

I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at Brooklyn College where we are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We are currently enrolled in a research course for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking for your permission to allow your child to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our thesis research paper topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom. Our research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with students at least three times a week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter through the Literacy and/or Social Studies lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s knowledge on cultural diversity in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting a pretest and a post-test to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material.The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural background. We will be conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of various topics and their effects on students’ academic success rates with and without the additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of our lessons we will conduct a posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.

 If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.

Thank you,

Svetlana Khvatikova and MarvaRudder

Please check, write student’s name, and sign:

(_____) I give my child _______________________________permission to participate in this research study.

(_____) I do not want my child _________________________________ to participate in this study.

Parent Signature: X______________________________________________________


Appendix b teacher consent form

Appendix B: Teacher Consent Form

Dear Teacher, I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at Brooklyn College where we are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We are currently enrolled in a research course for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking for your permission to allow your class to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our thesis research paper topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom. Our research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with students at least three times a week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter through the Literacy and/or Social Studies lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s knowledge on cultural diversity in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting a pretest and a post-test to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material. The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural background. We will be conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of various topics and their effects on students’ academic success rates with and without the additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of our lessons we will conduct a posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.

 If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.

Thank you,

Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder


Appendix c principal administrator consent form

Appendix C: Principal/Administrator Consent Form

Dear Principal/Administrator,  I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at Brooklyn College where we are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We are currently enrolled in a research course for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking for your permission to allow your school to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our thesis research paper topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom. Our research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with students at least three times a week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter through the Literacy and/or Social Studies lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s knowledge on cultural diversity in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting a pretest and a post-test to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material. The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural background. We will be conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of various topics and their effects on students’ academic success rates with and without the additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of our lessons we will conduct a posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.

 If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.

Thank you,

Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder


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