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مبانی کامپیوتر PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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مبانی کامپیوتر. 1. تاريخچه. 2. تاريخچه. اولين ماشين محاسبه در سال 1820 اختراع شد. خصوصيات اين ماشين محاسبات را با سرعت و دقت خيلي زيادي انجام مي داد. 3. تاريخچه. در سال 1830 چارلز بابيج ماشيني طراحي کرد که موتورتحليل ناميده شد . اين ماشين ايده ساخت کامپيوترهاي امروزي را پديد آورد.

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1


2


1820 .

.

3


1830 .

.


5


.

.

6


IC .

50 . .

7


:

IC ...

:

.

8


9


10


11


(Main Memory) (Primary Memory ) .

cell .

12


Write( ):

Read( ):

Write Read .

13


14


(byte) .

(bit) 8 .

15


( PC )

: 1 0

16


17


:

Kilo = 210

Mega = 220

Giga = 230

Tera = 240

Peta = 250

Exa = 260

18


19


(RAM): Random Access Memory

(RWM) . .

20


- RWM .

(RAM) .


Read Only Memory(ROM)

ROM .

22


Program .


ROM :

BIOS ) Basic Input/Output System ) .


(PROM):

Programmable Read Only Memory

. .

25


(EPROM):

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

.

26


:

.

.

27


28


  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

29


30


Secondary Storage .

31


32


  • :

    • ) (Hard Disk)

    • ) (Floppy Disk)

  • CD

  • DVD

33


(Disk) :

Case .

.

34


(Track): .

(Sector) : . .

35


.

(Disk Drive) .

36


CD-ROM :

CD . .

CD 700 .

37


. CD .


CPU

39


CPU

CPU :

.

40


CPU

:

1- (ALU)

Arithmetic and Logic Unit

2- (CU)

Control Unite

3- (Register)


CPU

1. (ALU)

.... and , or ....

42


CPU

2. (CU)

. .


CPU

3. (Register) :

.

44


45


:

:

( 25 80 )

46


47


:

) : ... .

48


) :

.

. .

49


.

: .

.

50


.

.


) :

. . .

:

MS-DOS,WINDOWS,MACINTOSHOS,UNIX

52


53


) :

.

54


) :

.


) :

. .

56


DOSMicroSoft Disk Operating System

57


DOS

  • IBM

58


59


:

windows.

60


:

Dos.


DOS

62


DOS

* :

Starting MS-DOS

----

----

C:\>-

* DOS(Prompt) .

*

63


Dos (Cursor) DOS(command line) .

Dos Enter .

64


VER

65


VER

ver DOS .

DOS :

C:\> VER

:

MS-DOS version 6.22

: DOS Case insensitive .

66


CLS

67


CLS

.

68


TIME

69


TIME

  • :

70


TIME

:

C:\> TIME

:

Current time is : 10:10:59.20a

Enter new time :


TIME

Enter .

72


TIME

  • :

  • a p .

  • 8:22 .

  • Time time 2:10:25 p.


TIME

  • time :

  • Bad command or file name

  • .

74


TIME

  • 24 p .

  • Invalid time .


Date

76


Date

  • :

77


Date

:

C:\>date

:

Current date is Mon 01-18-1999

Enter new date (mm-dd-yy):


Date

  • (-) (.) (/) . Invalid data .

  • .

79


80


  • H.D .

  • H.D (File) .

81


H.D .

H.D Subdirectory .


  • Drive :

  • .

83


A B C Z H.D CD.Rom .


85


:

() (.) .

86


.

1 8 0 3 .

:

.


:

- . ()

- (Double coat)

- / (Slash)

- \(back slash)

- [ ] ( )

- : (colon)

- | (Bar)

- < > ( )

- + ( )

- (semi colon)

- ()

()

88


DOS .

Com1, Com2, Com3, Com4, NUL, CON, PRN, Clock $, AUX, LPT 1, LPT2, LPT3

89


128 . a


91


Subdirectory directory Root Directory .

92


:

() .

:

\ \n...\ .2\ .1\ \:


.

94


DIR

95


DIR

  • .

  • .

  • Volume in drive c is center

  • Volume serial number is 157A-6C23

  • Directory of c:\

  • Command com 46,246 11-21-98 4:06a

  • Dos <DIR> 11-22-99 7:30p

  • 1 file (s) 46,246 bytes

  • 36,836,999 bytes free

96


DIR

Lable .

.

97


DIR

( ) .

<DIR> .


DIR

H.D .

.

99


DIR

w/ : . .

P / : 25 . .

100


DIR

DIR .


COPYCON

102


COPYCON

.

ctrl +Z .

103


Type

104


Type

.

105


106


  • DOS . :

  • C:\>

  • C .

107


DOS

D:\COMPILER\TP D TP COMPILER .


: DOS .

Prompt $p$g

.

109


A.TXT TMP C .

DOS C: \TMP>

TYPE A.TXT

.

110


TYPE A.TXT

File not fond

.

DOS A.TXT ( C) TMP . .


112


":" Enter . C D :

C:\>D:

D:\>

113


A B :

Not ready reading drive A

Abort, Retry, Fail?

R ( Retry) F ( Fail) .

Current drive is no longer valid>

.

C:

114


CD

115


CD

CHDIR (Chang Director) .

DOS .

CD . .

D:\TMP

116


CD

.

.

117


CD

C TMP CD TMP .

DOS :

C: \CD TMP

C:\ TMP>


CD

TMP EXAMPLE.PAS CD EXAMPLE.PAS :

C:\TMP>CD EXAMPLE.PAS

C:\TMP\EXAMPLE.PAS>

119


CD

temp c .

D:\>c:

C:\> cd temp

C:\temp>

**C:\ cd temp\p1.pas

**c:\temp>pas>cd..

** c:\temp>pas>cd\

120


MD

121


MD

MKDIR ( Make Directory) () .

C:\> md pas

( 8 ) ( 8 3 ) .

122


MD

MD 123456789 12345678 .


TREE

124


TREE

.

|MORE

f/ .

125


TREE

: DIR S/ .

C:\> DIR A.EXE /S

126


DEL

127


DEL

.

.

DEL /P .

128


UNDELETE

129


UNDELETE

.

** . .

130


UNDELETE

:

C:\>Undelete a.txt

DOS (y/N) y .

131


RD

132


RD

RMDIR (Remove Directory) . .

133


RD

:

  • 2. .

134


135


* 0 1 * 0 8 .

:

*.* DEL .

136


DEL *

* .

137


A*.*DEL

A .


DEL.*PAS

PAS .

139


DEL TA*.B*

TA B .


DEL *A.*

.

:

1. .

2. DOS .

141


*.DEL ?

.

.

142


??.? DEL

2 .

143


DEL A?.*

2 A .


DEL ?B.*

B .

:

. .

145


. DEL

DEL*.*

.

146


DEL .


TYPE RD.

DIR A*.*

A .


Copy

149


Copy

.

copy :

Copy

.

.

.

150


Copy

:

.

Copy c:\tmp\a.txt d:\b.txt

151


A.TXT TMP C D . B.TXT . ( .)

Copy C:\TMP\A.TXT D:\A.TXT

.

152


Copy

C:\tmp D:\ .

.

:

Copy c:\tmp\a.txt d:\

153


Copy

** FORMAT.COM BACK UP

overwrite D:\BACKUP\FORMAT.COM (Yes/No/All)?

N A y A y .

154


Copy

**

COPY *.txt *. bak

txt BAK . .

COPY A.TXT+B.TXT

B.TXT A.TXT C.TXT . A.TXT B.TXT .

155


Copy

- A.TXT :

Copy a.txt+b.txt a.txt

Copy a.txt+b.txt

.


Copy

** y Copy .

157


REN

158


REN

REN :

A .TXT TXT. B

REN A.TXT B.TXT

159


REN

  • REN *.TXT *.TMP

  • TXT TMP.

  • : REN .

  • :

  • .


REN

:

:

REN C:\TMP\A.TXT D:\PRAC\B.TXT

:

Invalid parameter

: . .

REN C:\TMP\A TXT B.TXT

161


MOVE

162


MOVE

.

:

MOVE REN . REN MOVE ( ) .

163


MOVE

:

MOVE

Copy .

C:\TMP D:\PRAC .

MOVE C:\ TMP\* .* D:\ PRAC

164


MOVE

MOVE y .

MOVE .

:

TMP TMP2 .

MOVE TMP TMP2

165


MOVE

MOVE .

:

GRAPH.PAS FRAC C:\TMP .

MOVE FRAC,GRAPH.PAS C\:TMP

166


DELTREE

167


DELTREE

RD DELTREE .

DELTREE D:\TMP

DOS .

y .

168


DELTREE

DELTREE D:\ COMPILER

COMPILER COMPILER .

y .

169


X Copy

170


X Copy

. :

X Copy

.

y .

171


X Copy

X Copy C:\ PAS1 D:\PAS 2

PAS 1 PAS 2 .

S .

E .

172


X Copy

V .

.

X Copy C:\PAS 1 D:\PAS2 |E| V

XCOPY D:\PAS1 D:\BAS2/E/V

173


DISK COPY

174


DISK COPY

.

DISK COPY 1 2

175


DISK COPY A: A:

.

176


y N DOS .


V .


DOS

179


DOS

DOS .

180


1:

? :

Copy ? /

.


2. HELP .

:

HELP DELTREE

HELP DOS .

182


3. FAST HELP HELP . DOS .


CHK DSK

184


CHK DSK

. .

185


CHK DSK

: .


CHK DSK

f .

V .

187


Attrib

188


Attrib

. :

189


Attrib

:

DIR TREE .

H ( Hidden) .

190


Attrib

:

.

.

R ( Read Only) .

191


Attrib

:

. .

A ( Arechive) .

192


Attrib

:

DOS .

S ( System) .

193


Attrib

Attrib .

.

194


Attrib

Attrib .

S .

195


Attrib

A.txt .

Attribe A.txt /S

Attribe + .

196


Attrib

+ . P1PAS .

Attribe + P1.PAS

.

197


Attrib

.

:

P2.PAS :

Attrib +H A P2.PAS

198


Attrib

:

.

.

199


FORMAT

200


FORMAT

DOS :

FORMAT

FORMAT 11 .

201


FORMAT

1 : .

2 : . .

202


FORMAT

3 : .

Q .

:

Format C: /Q

203


FORMAT

Format unformat format unformat u .

:

unformat c: /u

.

204


FORMAT

V V : . :

format c:/V :"Mydisk"

.

V .

205


FORMAT

DOS .

1.44 M Formatting

.

Format .

206


FORMAT

format F : .


FORMAT

:

( 1.44 ) .

: 720 . :

FORMAT A:/F:720 K

208


VOL

209


VOL

.

:

VOL C:

210


LABEL

211


LABEL

LABEL .

LABEL .

:

A PASCAL :

LABEAL A: PASCAL

.

212


Unformat

213


Unformat

.

:

FORMAT .

5 DOS

214


Unformat

Format .

:

Unformat

L .

TEST .

215


EDIT

216


EDIT

EDIT .

217


EDIT

:

:

.

218


EDIT

:

Enter Esc .

219


EDIT

.

.

:

220


EDIT

221


EDIT

.

INSERT .

222


EDIT

Delete .

Delete Backspace .

223


EDIT

Ctrl + Insert .

shift+insert .

.

224


EDIT

.

Shift+Delet

Shift+Insert .

225


EDIT

.

EDIT . F10 EDIT ENTER ALT+E .

EDIT .

226


EDIT

:

Clear Clear Delete.

. (short key) .

227


EDIT

DOS .

search File Ctrl+Q+F .

228


EDIT

.

change search ctrl+Q+A .

229


EDIT

EDIT ( ) .

.

230


EDIT

EDIT Untitled . .

Save File .

231


EDIT

(untitled) save Filename .

TAB Dirs/Drives Enter .

EXIT File .

232


EDIT

print File print .

233


EDIT

Edit FILE Open Dirs/Drives FILENAME .

234


EDIT

FILENAME *.* .

Enter .

235


EDIT

:

Help

Edit F1 .

236


237


  • :

  • .

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • (batch files )

238


- :

.

txt, Doc, PAS, BAC, C, CPP

.

239


- :

.

COM EXE Enter .

.

240


- :

Enter

Filename Bad Command for

OBJ DLL BIN CHR .

241


- :

DOS SYS .

:

MSDOS,SYS,I0.SYS

242


- :

BAT .

DOS . . .

.

243


  • TEST.BAT :

  • Cls

  • TIME

  • PAUSE

  • DIR

244


TEST.BAT Enter .

( CLS ) Press any key to continue .

245


( Pause ) ( DIR) DOS .

.

246


247


.

COPY , DEL , DIR DOS . .

248


DOS Dos ( C) . .

249


: :

RD, MD, MKDIR, ERASE, DEL, REN, COPY, PATH, DIR, TYPE, RMDIR, PAUSE.

250


: :

HELP.COM , FORMAT.COM, EDIT.COM, TREE.COM, UNFORMAT.COM

251


PATH

252


PATH

DOS PATH .

PATH DOS .

:

PATH= C: \ DOS; C: \ WINDOWS ; C: \ PASCAL

253


PATH

PATH ; .

254


PATH

:

DOS DOS

BAD COMAND OR FILE NAME

.

(; ) .

255


PATH

:

COM , EXE BAT .

.

256


PATH

( ) .

C:\DOS ; C:\WINDOWS

BAT DOS .

257


APPEND

258


APPEND

PATH APPEND PATH PATH APPEND APPEND .

259


APPEND

:

HELP.TXT HELP.TXT C:\DOCUMENT .

APPEND C:\DOCUMENT ; C:\DOS

DOCUMENT Dos .

260


APPEND

:

(;) .

APPEND .

261


DOS( Boot up)

262


DOS

:

DOS .

BIOS .

DOS .


DOS

  • DOS:

  • IO.SYS MSDOS.SYSCOMAND.COM, .

    IO.SYS MSDOS.SYS :

  • COMAND.COM :

  • DOS


DOS

DOS .

BIOS .

.


DOS

.

NONE-SYSTEM DISK REPLACE AND PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE

.


DOS

DOS DOS

STARTING MS-DOS

.

.


SYS

268


SYS

DOS MSDOS.SYS , IO.SYS , COMMAND.COM SYS .

SYS .


SYS

:

SYS

DOS . :

:

SYS C: A:


SYS

:

SYS A:

:

SYSTEM TRANSFERRED


SYS

:

SYS SYS.COM .

FORMAT S .


AUTO EXEC.BAT

273


AUTO EXEC.BAT

.

AUTOEXE.BAT .


AUTO EXEC.BAT

:

DOS

C:\DOS ; D:\WINDOWS

.

AUTOEXEC.BAT .


AUTO EXEC.BAT

.

PATH = C:\DOS ; D:\WINDOWS

DOS PATH .


CONFIG.SYS

277


CONFIG.SYS

  • :


CONFIG.SYS

  • CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT .

  • .

  • CONFIG.SYS DOS .


280


:

PRINT

DOS .

.


  • T .

  • C .


  • P .

  • PRINT .


:

  • COPY

    LPT3 LPT2 LPT1 PRN.

  • B .


:

PRINT COPY .


PRINT SCREEN .

GRAPHICS DOS .


287


SEPAND.EXE .


Scroll Lock .

. SEPAND .

U .


shift SEPAND SEPAND ESC .


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