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مبانی کامپیوتر PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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مبانی کامپیوتر. 1. تاريخچه. 2. تاريخچه. اولين ماشين محاسبه در سال 1820 اختراع شد. خصوصيات اين ماشين محاسبات را با سرعت و دقت خيلي زيادي انجام مي داد. 3. تاريخچه. در سال 1830 چارلز بابيج ماشيني طراحي کرد که موتورتحليل ناميده شد . اين ماشين ايده ساخت کامپيوترهاي امروزي را پديد آورد.

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1820 .

.

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1830 .

.


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.

.

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IC .

50 . .

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:

IC ...

:

.

8


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9


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10


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11


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(Main Memory) (Primary Memory ) .

cell .

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Write( ):

Read( ):

Write Read .

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(byte) .

(bit) 8 .

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( PC )

: 1 0

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:

Kilo = 210

Mega = 220

Giga = 230

Tera = 240

Peta = 250

Exa = 260

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(RAM): Random Access Memory

(RWM) . .

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- RWM .

(RAM) .


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Read Only Memory(ROM)

ROM .

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Program .


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ROM :

BIOS ) Basic Input/Output System ) .


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(PROM):

Programmable Read Only Memory

. .

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(EPROM):

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

.

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:

.

.

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  • .

  • .

  • .

  • .

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Secondary Storage .

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  • :

    • ) (Hard Disk)

    • ) (Floppy Disk)

  • CD

  • DVD

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(Disk) :

Case .

.

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(Track): .

(Sector) : . .

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.

(Disk Drive) .

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CD-ROM :

CD . .

CD 700 .

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. CD .


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CPU

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CPU

CPU :

.

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CPU

:

1- (ALU)

Arithmetic and Logic Unit

2- (CU)

Control Unite

3- (Register)


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CPU

1. (ALU)

.... and , or ....

42


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CPU

2. (CU)

. .


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CPU

3. (Register) :

.

44


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45


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:

:

( 25 80 )

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47


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:

) : ... .

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) :

.

. .

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.

: .

.

50


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.

.


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) :

. . .

:

MS-DOS,WINDOWS,MACINTOSHOS,UNIX

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) :

.

54


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) :

.


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) :

. .

56


Dos microsoft disk operating system

DOSMicroSoft Disk Operating System

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DOS

  • IBM

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:

windows.

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:

Dos.


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DOS

62


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DOS

* :

Starting MS-DOS

----

----

C:\>-

* DOS(Prompt) .

*

63


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Dos (Cursor) DOS(command line) .

Dos Enter .

64


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VER

65


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VER

ver DOS .

DOS :

C:\> VER

:

MS-DOS version 6.22

: DOS Case insensitive .

66


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CLS

67


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CLS

.

68


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TIME

69


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TIME

  • :

70


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TIME

:

C:\> TIME

:

Current time is : 10:10:59.20a

Enter new time :


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TIME

Enter .

72


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TIME

  • :

  • a p .

  • 8:22 .

  • Time time 2:10:25 p.


5025806

TIME

  • time :

  • Bad command or file name

  • .

74


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TIME

  • 24 p .

  • Invalid time .


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Date

76


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Date

  • :

77


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Date

:

C:\>date

:

Current date is Mon 01-18-1999

Enter new date (mm-dd-yy):


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Date

  • (-) (.) (/) . Invalid data .

  • .

79


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80


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  • H.D .

  • H.D (File) .

81


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H.D .

H.D Subdirectory .


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  • Drive :

  • .

83


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A B C Z H.D CD.Rom .


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85


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:

() (.) .

86


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.

1 8 0 3 .

:

.


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:

- . ()

- (Double coat)

- / (Slash)

- \(back slash)

- [ ] ( )

- : (colon)

- | (Bar)

- < > ( )

- + ( )

- (semi colon)

- ()

()

88


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DOS .

Com1, Com2, Com3, Com4, NUL, CON, PRN, Clock $, AUX, LPT 1, LPT2, LPT3

89


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128 . a


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91


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Subdirectory directory Root Directory .

92


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:

() .

:

\ \n...\ .2\ .1\ \:


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.

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DIR

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DIR

  • .

  • .

  • Volume in drive c is center

  • Volume serial number is 157A-6C23

  • Directory of c:\

  • Command com 46,246 11-21-98 4:06a

  • Dos <DIR> 11-22-99 7:30p

  • 1 file (s) 46,246 bytes

  • 36,836,999 bytes free

96


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DIR

Lable .

.

97


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DIR

( ) .

<DIR> .


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DIR

H.D .

.

99


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DIR

w/ : . .

P / : 25 . .

100


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DIR

DIR .


Copycon

COPYCON

102


Copycon1

COPYCON

.

ctrl +Z .

103


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Type

104


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Type

.

105


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106


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  • DOS . :

  • C:\>

  • C .

107


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DOS

D:\COMPILER\TP D TP COMPILER .


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: DOS .

Prompt $p$g

.

109


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A.TXT TMP C .

DOS C: \TMP>

TYPE A.TXT

.

110


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TYPE A.TXT

File not fond

.

DOS A.TXT ( C) TMP . .


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112


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":" Enter . C D :

C:\>D:

D:\>

113


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A B :

Not ready reading drive A

Abort, Retry, Fail?

R ( Retry) F ( Fail) .

Current drive is no longer valid>

.

C:

114


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CD

115


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CD

CHDIR (Chang Director) .

DOS .

CD . .

D:\TMP

116


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CD

.

.

117


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CD

C TMP CD TMP .

DOS :

C: \CD TMP

C:\ TMP>


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CD

TMP EXAMPLE.PAS CD EXAMPLE.PAS :

C:\TMP>CD EXAMPLE.PAS

C:\TMP\EXAMPLE.PAS>

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CD

temp c .

D:\>c:

C:\> cd temp

C:\temp>

**C:\ cd temp\p1.pas

**c:\temp>pas>cd..

** c:\temp>pas>cd\

120


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MD

121


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MD

MKDIR ( Make Directory) () .

C:\> md pas

( 8 ) ( 8 3 ) .

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MD

MD 123456789 12345678 .


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TREE

124


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TREE

.

|MORE

f/ .

125


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TREE

: DIR S/ .

C:\> DIR A.EXE /S

126


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DEL

127


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DEL

.

.

DEL /P .

128


Undelete

UNDELETE

129


Undelete1

UNDELETE

.

** . .

130


Undelete2

UNDELETE

:

C:\>Undelete a.txt

DOS (y/N) y .

131


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RD

132


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RD

RMDIR (Remove Directory) . .

133


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RD

:

  • 2. .

134


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135


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* 0 1 * 0 8 .

:

*.* DEL .

136


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DEL *

* .

137


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A*.*DEL

A .


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DEL.*PAS

PAS .

139


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DEL TA*.B*

TA B .


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DEL *A.*

.

:

1. .

2. DOS .

141


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*.DEL ?

.

.

142


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??.? DEL

2 .

143


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DEL A?.*

2 A .


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DEL ?B.*

B .

:

. .

145


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. DEL

DEL*.*

.

146


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DEL .


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TYPE RD.

DIR A*.*

A .


5025806

Copy

149


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Copy

.

copy :

Copy

.

.

.

150


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Copy

:

.

Copy c:\tmp\a.txt d:\b.txt

151


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A.TXT TMP C D . B.TXT . ( .)

Copy C:\TMP\A.TXT D:\A.TXT

.

152


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Copy

C:\tmp D:\ .

.

:

Copy c:\tmp\a.txt d:\

153


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Copy

** FORMAT.COM BACK UP

overwrite D:\BACKUP\FORMAT.COM (Yes/No/All)?

N A y A y .

154


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Copy

**

COPY *.txt *. bak

txt BAK . .

COPY A.TXT+B.TXT

B.TXT A.TXT C.TXT . A.TXT B.TXT .

155


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Copy

- A.TXT :

Copy a.txt+b.txt a.txt

Copy a.txt+b.txt

.


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Copy

** y Copy .

157


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REN

158


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REN

REN :

A .TXT TXT. B

REN A.TXT B.TXT

159


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REN

  • REN *.TXT *.TMP

  • TXT TMP.

  • : REN .

  • :

  • .


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REN

:

:

REN C:\TMP\A.TXT D:\PRAC\B.TXT

:

Invalid parameter

: . .

REN C:\TMP\A TXT B.TXT

161


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MOVE

162


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MOVE

.

:

MOVE REN . REN MOVE ( ) .

163


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MOVE

:

MOVE

Copy .

C:\TMP D:\PRAC .

MOVE C:\ TMP\* .* D:\ PRAC

164


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MOVE

MOVE y .

MOVE .

:

TMP TMP2 .

MOVE TMP TMP2

165


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MOVE

MOVE .

:

GRAPH.PAS FRAC C:\TMP .

MOVE FRAC,GRAPH.PAS C\:TMP

166


Deltree

DELTREE

167


Deltree1

DELTREE

RD DELTREE .

DELTREE D:\TMP

DOS .

y .

168


Deltree2

DELTREE

DELTREE D:\ COMPILER

COMPILER COMPILER .

y .

169


X copy

X Copy

170


X copy1

X Copy

. :

X Copy

.

y .

171


X copy2

X Copy

X Copy C:\ PAS1 D:\PAS 2

PAS 1 PAS 2 .

S .

E .

172


X copy3

X Copy

V .

.

X Copy C:\PAS 1 D:\PAS2 |E| V

XCOPY D:\PAS1 D:\BAS2/E/V

173


Disk copy

DISK COPY

174


Disk copy1

DISK COPY

.

DISK COPY 1 2

175


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DISK COPY A: A:

.

176


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y N DOS .


5025806

V .


5025806

DOS

179


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DOS

DOS .

180


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1:

? :

Copy ? /

.


5025806

2. HELP .

:

HELP DELTREE

HELP DOS .

182


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3. FAST HELP HELP . DOS .


Chk dsk

CHK DSK

184


Chk dsk1

CHK DSK

. .

185


Chk dsk2

CHK DSK

: .


Chk dsk3

CHK DSK

f .

V .

187


Attrib

Attrib

188


Attrib1

Attrib

. :

189


Attrib2

Attrib

:

DIR TREE .

H ( Hidden) .

190


Attrib3

Attrib

:

.

.

R ( Read Only) .

191


Attrib4

Attrib

:

. .

A ( Arechive) .

192


Attrib5

Attrib

:

DOS .

S ( System) .

193


Attrib6

Attrib

Attrib .

.

194


Attrib7

Attrib

Attrib .

S .

195


Attrib8

Attrib

A.txt .

Attribe A.txt /S

Attribe + .

196


Attrib9

Attrib

+ . P1PAS .

Attribe + P1.PAS

.

197


Attrib10

Attrib

.

:

P2.PAS :

Attrib +H A P2.PAS

198


Attrib11

Attrib

:

.

.

199


Format

FORMAT

200


Format1

FORMAT

DOS :

FORMAT

FORMAT 11 .

201


Format2

FORMAT

1 : .

2 : . .

202


Format3

FORMAT

3 : .

Q .

:

Format C: /Q

203


Format4

FORMAT

Format unformat format unformat u .

:

unformat c: /u

.

204


Format5

FORMAT

V V : . :

format c:/V :"Mydisk"

.

V .

205


Format6

FORMAT

DOS .

1.44 M Formatting

.

Format .

206


Format7

FORMAT

format F : .


Format8

FORMAT

:

( 1.44 ) .

: 720 . :

FORMAT A:/F:720 K

208


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VOL

209


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VOL

.

:

VOL C:

210


Label

LABEL

211


Label1

LABEL

LABEL .

LABEL .

:

A PASCAL :

LABEAL A: PASCAL

.

212


Unformat

Unformat

213


Unformat1

Unformat

.

:

FORMAT .

5 DOS

214


Unformat2

Unformat

Format .

:

Unformat

L .

TEST .

215


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EDIT

216


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EDIT

EDIT .

217


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EDIT

:

:

.

218


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EDIT

:

Enter Esc .

219


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EDIT

.

.

:

220


5025806

EDIT

221


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EDIT

.

INSERT .

222


5025806

EDIT

Delete .

Delete Backspace .

223


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EDIT

Ctrl + Insert .

shift+insert .

.

224


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EDIT

.

Shift+Delet

Shift+Insert .

225


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EDIT

.

EDIT . F10 EDIT ENTER ALT+E .

EDIT .

226


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EDIT

:

Clear Clear Delete.

. (short key) .

227


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EDIT

DOS .

search File Ctrl+Q+F .

228


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EDIT

.

change search ctrl+Q+A .

229


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EDIT

EDIT ( ) .

.

230


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EDIT

EDIT Untitled . .

Save File .

231


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EDIT

(untitled) save Filename .

TAB Dirs/Drives Enter .

EXIT File .

232


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EDIT

print File print .

233


5025806

EDIT

Edit FILE Open Dirs/Drives FILENAME .

234


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EDIT

FILENAME *.* .

Enter .

235


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EDIT

:

Help

Edit F1 .

236


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237


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  • :

  • .

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • (batch files )

238


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- :

.

txt, Doc, PAS, BAC, C, CPP

.

239


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- :

.

COM EXE Enter .

.

240


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- :

Enter

Filename Bad Command for

OBJ DLL BIN CHR .

241


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- :

DOS SYS .

:

MSDOS,SYS,I0.SYS

242


5025806

- :

BAT .

DOS . . .

.

243


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  • TEST.BAT :

  • Cls

  • TIME

  • PAUSE

  • DIR

244


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TEST.BAT Enter .

( CLS ) Press any key to continue .

245


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( Pause ) ( DIR) DOS .

.

246


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247


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.

COPY , DEL , DIR DOS . .

248


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DOS Dos ( C) . .

249


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: :

RD, MD, MKDIR, ERASE, DEL, REN, COPY, PATH, DIR, TYPE, RMDIR, PAUSE.

250


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: :

HELP.COM , FORMAT.COM, EDIT.COM, TREE.COM, UNFORMAT.COM

251


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PATH

252


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PATH

DOS PATH .

PATH DOS .

:

PATH= C: \ DOS; C: \ WINDOWS ; C: \ PASCAL

253


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PATH

PATH ; .

254


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PATH

:

DOS DOS

BAD COMAND OR FILE NAME

.

(; ) .

255


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PATH

:

COM , EXE BAT .

.

256


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PATH

( ) .

C:\DOS ; C:\WINDOWS

BAT DOS .

257


Append

APPEND

258


Append1

APPEND

PATH APPEND PATH PATH APPEND APPEND .

259


Append2

APPEND

:

HELP.TXT HELP.TXT C:\DOCUMENT .

APPEND C:\DOCUMENT ; C:\DOS

DOCUMENT Dos .

260


Append3

APPEND

:

(;) .

APPEND .

261


Dos boot up

DOS( Boot up)

262


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DOS

:

DOS .

BIOS .

DOS .


5025806

DOS

  • DOS:

  • IO.SYS MSDOS.SYSCOMAND.COM, .

    IO.SYS MSDOS.SYS :

  • COMAND.COM :

  • DOS


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DOS

DOS .

BIOS .

.


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DOS

.

NONE-SYSTEM DISK REPLACE AND PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE

.


5025806

DOS

DOS DOS

STARTING MS-DOS

.

.


5025806

SYS

268


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SYS

DOS MSDOS.SYS , IO.SYS , COMMAND.COM SYS .

SYS .


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SYS

:

SYS

DOS . :

:

SYS C: A:


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SYS

:

SYS A:

:

SYSTEM TRANSFERRED


5025806

SYS

:

SYS SYS.COM .

FORMAT S .


Auto exec bat

AUTO EXEC.BAT

273


Auto exec bat1

AUTO EXEC.BAT

.

AUTOEXE.BAT .


Auto exec bat2

AUTO EXEC.BAT

:

DOS

C:\DOS ; D:\WINDOWS

.

AUTOEXEC.BAT .


Auto exec bat3

AUTO EXEC.BAT

.

PATH = C:\DOS ; D:\WINDOWS

DOS PATH .


Config sys

CONFIG.SYS

277


Config sys1

CONFIG.SYS

  • :


Config sys2

CONFIG.SYS

  • CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT .

  • .

  • CONFIG.SYS DOS .


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280


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:

PRINT

DOS .

.


5025806

  • T .

  • C .


5025806

  • P .

  • PRINT .


5025806

:

  • COPY

    LPT3 LPT2 LPT1 PRN.

  • B .


5025806

:

PRINT COPY .


5025806

PRINT SCREEN .

GRAPHICS DOS .


5025806

287


5025806

SEPAND.EXE .


5025806

Scroll Lock .

. SEPAND .

U .


5025806

shift SEPAND SEPAND ESC .


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