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The Enlightenment & the American Revolution. Ms. Garratt. Linkage of the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment. Belief in Progress The successes of the Scientific Revolution gave philosophes the confidence that human reason could solve social problems. More secular Perspective

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linkage of the scientific revolution to the enlightenment
Linkage of the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment
  • Belief in Progress
    • The successes of the Scientific Revolution gave philosophes the confidence that human reason could solve social problems.
  • More secular Perspective
    • Scientists made discoveries that contradicted & challenged religious teachings.
  • Importance of the Individual
    • People turned away from the Church & royalty for guidance - looked to themselves.
    • Encouraged to use their own abilities & reason to problem solve
core values of the philosophes
Core Values of the Philosophes
  • 1. Reason – truth could be discovered through reason
  • 2. Happiness – rejected medieval belief that people should concentrate on finding happiness in the hereafter rather than finding contentment & joy in this world
  • 3. Progress – Humankind could improve
  • 4. Liberty – called for liberties achieve from the Glorious Revolution in the English Bill of Rights
voltaire
Voltaire
  • Prolific writer who used satire against his enemies.
  • Attacked clergy, aristocrats & gov
  • Fought for religious freedom & speech.
  • Was jailed & exiled for his beliefs.
  • Fought superstition, intolerance and prejudice.
  • He corresponded directly with many rulers
hobbes
Hobbes
  • Influenced by the English Civil War
  • Human nature was wicked & life was like state of war
  • Social Contract req’d people to give up liberties to an absolute monarch.
  • In return they gain order & security.
  • Wrote the Leviathan
locke
Locke
  • Locke believed that human nature was essentially good.
  • Humans were born with natural rights of life, liberty, property…..
  • Purpose of gov was to protect those rights
  • If gov abused it’s authority as Britain had done people had a right to overthrow the gov
locke s chief influence
Locke’s Chief Influence
  • Principles include:
    • Natural rights
    • Purpose of gov
    • Justification to overthrow gov
    • Author of the Two Treatise on Government
montesquieu
Montesquieu
  • Believed the best organization of gov included:
  • Separation of powers &
  • Checks and balances
  • SOP was by itself a C/B
  • Both ideas are part of the US Constitution.
  • Wrote Spirit of the Laws
rousseau
Rousseau
  • Civilization corrupted man.
  • Only good gov had to be freely formed & guided by the “general will” of society.
  • Favored “direct democracy” in which individuals agree to give up some freedoms in favor of the common good.
  • Consent of government
  • Titles of nobility should be abolished
  • Influenced French Revolution/
  • Consent of the governed in US Constitution
beccaria
Beccaria
  • Interested in the justice system
  • Condemned torture & irregular procedings.
  • Favored:
    • Speedy trial
    • Fair treatment
    • Punishment commensurate with the crime
    • Abolishing capital punishment
wollstonecraft
Wollstonecraft
  • Women were not treated fairly by most philosophes.
  • Wollstonecraft believed that women were entitled to an equal education.
  • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
diderot
Diderot
  • Published the Encyclopedia.
  • Censorship used to prevent the spread of ideas.
  • Enlightened despots, absolute rulers, were those willing to consider some reforms
salons salonieres
Salons & Salonieres
  • Originated in 1600s
  • Noblewomen began inviting enlightenment philosophes in all fields to their homes
  • By the 1700s middle class women began holding salons.
  • Another way in which ideas were disseminated
catherine the great
Catherine the Great
  • Experimented with Enlightenment ideas
  • Communicated with Voltaire & Diderot.
  • Gave some rights to nobles
  • However she allied herself with nobles who opposed change.
  • Suppressed serf revolt
frederick the great
Frederick the Great
  • King of Prussia
  • Religious tolerance
  • Hired Voltaire to set up Prussian Academy
  • Instituted reforms to help commoners
  • However reforms were largely to make Prussian gov more efficient
joseph ii
Joseph II
  • Dedicated reformer
  • Disguised himself so he could learn about their problems and improve them.
  • Hired qualified civil servants rather than nobles
  • Religious toleration
  • Ended censorship
  • Sold some church property to build hospitals
baroque music
Baroque Music

I’ll be Bach!

  • Johann Sebastian Bach
  • George Friedrich Handel
  • Dramatic Organ & choral music
classical music enlightenment
Classical Music - Enlightenment
  • Composers
    • Joseph Haydn
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Lighter, more elegant music
literature
Literature
  • Novels which had plots, suspense & character development.
  • Entertaining stories enjoyed by middle classes.
  • Written in language that was understood
mercantilism vs laissez faire
Mercantilism vs. Laissez-Faire
  • Government regulated
  • Restricted trade
    • Tariffs
    • Navigation Acts
  • Regulated by the market
  • Liberal free trade
mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • Government regulated economic policy based on the following beliefs:
  • Wealth was measured by the amount of gold/silver in treasury which req’d that nations maintain favorable balance of trade.
  • Colonies were desired because they (1) provided raw materials and (2) markets for finished products.
  • Restrictive trade policies which was reflected in the Navigation Laws
adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Leading physiocrat who opposed mercantilism.
  • Wrote Wealth of Nations which argued that natural forces of supply & demand should operate the economy.
  • Strong supporter of laissez-faire.
  • Encouraged individual initiative
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