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STATES, PROVINCES, GOVERNORATES: REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN A FEDERATION Forum Federations An Intensive Course on Democratic Federalism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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STATES, PROVINCES, GOVERNORATES: REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN A FEDERATION Forum Federations An Intensive Course on Democratic Federalism. OVERVIEW. Types of regional governments in a federation How many regional governments? Defining their territory and character

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STATES, PROVINCES, GOVERNORATES: REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN A FEDERATION Forum Federations An Intensive Course on Democratic Federalism

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STATES, PROVINCES, GOVERNORATES:REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN A FEDERATIONForum FederationsAn Intensive Course on Democratic Federalism


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OVERVIEW

Types of regional governments in a federation

How many regional governments?

Defining their territory and character

Differences in the size of regional governments

Combining provinces, altering provincial borders

Provincial constitutions, flags and symbols

Concluding observations


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TYPES OF REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN A FEDERATION

  • Usually one type of sub national unit – states, provinces, autonomous regions, governorates, emirates, etc.

  • Often there are unorganized territories as well, under the control of the federal government

  • In some federations, there are different types of sub national units, having somewhat different statuses and roles

  • National capital regions often have special status

  • There can also be some differentiation in roles and responsibilities among the provinces or states of a federation – asymmetry

  • Usually a concern to limit the degree of asymmetry

  • Municipalities: a third order of government?


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HOW MANY REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS?

  • Number varies greatly

  • Two-unit federations tend to be unstable

  • Small number of units makes face-to-face intergovernmental contact easier

  • Larger number makes collective action by the provinces more difficult

  • Number of states or provinces relates to:

    • The size of the country and its population

    • Its history and geography

    • The nature of the ‘federal diversity’ to be expressed

    • The preferences of the citizens

    • The functions the regional governments will be performing


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DEFINING THEIR TERRITORY AND CHARACTER

  • Provinces can be established on the basis of:

    • History and tradition

    • Geography

    • Administrative convenience

    • Ethnic, cultural, religious divisions (ethnocultural factors)

    • A mix of the above

  • Major issue: Should provinces express cleavages or cut across cleavages?

    • Some argue that ethnoculturally-based provinces (expressing cleavages) create instability by deepening the divisions in a society

    • Others contend that ethnoculturally-based provinces increase stability by offering ethnic security and reducing the agitation for change

  • Both approaches – expressing and cutting across cleavages - have been widely used and have been positive in some cases and negative in others

  • Respect for ethnocultural minorities in all provinces a crucial stabilizing factor


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DIFFERENCES IN THE SIZE OF REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS

  • Provinces in a federation can vary enormously in population size, territory and economic capacity

  • Most federations appear able to accommodate these differences

  • Sometimes there are special provisions or supports for the smallest provinces

  • Having one province with a majority of the population in the country can create instability. Having one or two provinces with very large populations can concentrate political power there and create stress


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COMBINING PROVINCES,ALTERING PROVINCIAL BORDERS

  • Often highly controversial

  • In most federations, cannot be done without provincial consent

  • Sometimes requires popular consultation

  • In a few federations, the federal government has the power to alter existing provinces and create new ones

  • Provisions in the 2005 Iraqi Constitution


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PROVINCIAL CONSTITUTIONS, SYMBOLS, FLAGS

  • In some federations, provinces obtain constitutional expression simply through the country’s federal constitution – no separate constitutional document

  • In others, the states or provinces have their own constitutions, addressing matters of specific local concern

  • Provincial constitutions must be consistent with, and operate within the scope of the federal constitution

  • Many provinces in federations supplement national symbols with their own regional flags and other symbols of regional identity, declare their own official holidays, and the like.

  • Primary and secondary education, too, is often tailored to the distinctive needs and perspectives of the regional communities


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