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INDIA AND PAKISTAN SINCE INDEPENDENCE. PARTITION. JINNAH AND PAKISTAN. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ElEYZ_BJl0M&feature=fvw. BORDER CEREMONY. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjcF6lmBqGs. The problem of Kashmir. Kashmir is India’s only Muslim majority territory

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jinnah and pakistan
JINNAH AND PAKISTAN

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ElEYZ_BJl0M&feature=fvw

border ceremony
BORDER CEREMONY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjcF6lmBqGs

the problem of kashmir
The problem of Kashmir
  • Kashmir is India’s only Muslim majority territory
  • India accuses Pakistan of waging a proxy war by arming militants
  • Jammu’s population is 2/3 Hindu
  • Kashmiris never voted; extremists/separatists were born
  • Why did the U.S. adopt Pakistan as its ally?
kashmir conflict
KASHMIR CONFLICT

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rmUiLwy7kI&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

indian politics

Nehru (1947)>>

Indian Politics

<<Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 80-84)

Rajiv Gandhi>> (1984-89)

>> Singh (2004-now)

nehru
NEHRU
  • LEFT BRITISH-TRAINED CIVIL SERVICE INTACT
  • INDIA A “ONE-PARTY DEMOCRACY” – Nehru was very popular and respected
  • Prime minister 1948-1966, when he died
  • NEUTRAL IN COLD WAR
  • FIVE YEAR PLANS
  • SOCIALIST ECONOMY – low growth rate. Highly controlled. Private businesses had “license raj.”
indira gandhi
INDIRA GANDHI
  • NEHRU’S DAUGHTER
  • NOT RELATED TO MAHATMA GANDHI
  • POPULAR BUT ECONOMY DID POORLY IN 1970s
  • P.M. 1966-1977, 1980-84. ASSASSINATED BY A SIKH BODYGUARD.
a fake emergency india remains a democracy
A FAKE “EMERGENCY” – INDIA REMAINS A DEMOCRACY
  • INDIRA GANDHI TRIES TO GAIN DICTATORIAL POWERS WHEN SHE’S ACCUSED OF CORRUPTION IN 1975
  • JANATA DAL PARTY DEFEATS CONGRESS IN ELECTIONS IN 1977, RESTORES FULL DEMOCRACY AND CIVIL RIGHTS – First time Congress party is defeated.
  • DESPITE ITS PROBLEMS, INDIA REMAINS COMMITTED TO POLITICAL DEMOCRACY
rajiv gandhi
RAJIV GANDHI
  • INDIRA’S SON
  • POPULAR
  • INTERVENES IN SRI LANKA CIVIL WAR
  • P.M. FROM 1984 UNTIL ASSASSINATED BY TAMIL SEPARATISTS IN 1991
more gandhis
MORE GANDHIS
  • Indira’s other son, Sanjay, died in a plane crash in 1980.
  • Rajiv’s widow, Sonia, is Italian-born. She is president of the Congress party.
  • Controversy about whether she should run for higher office.
economic reforms 1991 the big change
ECONOMIC REFORMS – 1991 – THE BIG CHANGE
  • MANMOHAN SINGH becomes finance minister in 1991
  • Engineers major reforms to loosen up government control of the economy
  • Economic takeoff in past 20 years.
  • Singh is currently Prime Minister
  • Member of Congress Party
hindu muslim tensions
HINDU-MUSLIM TENSIONS
  • Ayodhya riots
  • Mumbai riots
  • 1992-93. Thousands dead.
hindu nationalism
HINDU NATIONALISM
  • BJP Party wins national elections in 1998.
  • Favors confrontation with Pakistan
  • Develops nuclear weapons program, acccomplishes little else.
india s assets
INDIA’S ASSETS
  • GOOD TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE BUILT BY BRITISH (RAILROAD NETWORK)
  • PUSH FOR EDUCATION – MANY WELL-TRAINED PEOPLE
  • HUGE MIDDLE CLASS
  • HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES – CENTERED IN BANGALORE
  • WORLD’S BIGGEST DEMOCRACY
  • POLITICAL STABILITY
  • COMMON USE OF ENGLISH BY EDUCATED PEOPLE
  • ABLE TO FEED ITSELF THANKS TO “GREEN REVOLUTION”
india s problems
INDIA’S PROBLEMS
  • MASSIVE POVERTY
  • CONFLICT BETWEEN CASTES & RELIGIONS
  • THREE WARS WITH PAKISTAN OVER KASHMIR – TERRORISTS FROM KASHMIR; 1962 border war with China
  • NUCLEAR STANDOFF WITH PAKISTAN
pakistan and bangladesh countries which were muslim parts of british india before partition
PAKISTAN AND BANGLADESH – Countries which were Muslim parts of British India before partition
pakistan
PAKISTAN
  • ORIGINALLY TWO TERRITORIES, A THOUSAND MILES APART, SPEAKING TWO UNRELATED LANGUAGES
  • WEST PAKISTAN DOMINATED
  • WEST PAKISTAN HAD FERTILE LAND ONLY IN THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM
political history
POLITICAL HISTORY
  • PAKISTAN ALTERNATED BETWEEN ELECTED DEMOCRACY AND MILITARY DICTATORSHIP
  • Shown at left: Zulfikar and Benazir Bhutto
pakistan politics

Jinnah (1947)>>

Pakistan Politics

<<Zulfikar Bhutto (1973-77)

Benazir Bhutto>> (1988-90, 93-96)

Sharif (1990-93, 97-99)

Zardari (now)

<< Musharraf (1999-2008)

benazir bhutto
BENAZIR BHUTTO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jj8zqwfB3DM

creation of bangladesh
CREATION OF BANGLADESH
  • In 1970s, Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan cracked down on politicians inEast Pakistan.
  • In 1971 election, East Pakistani leader Sheik Mujibur Rahman (right) won national elections.
  • The military government refused to accept the results.
  • East Pakistan seceded and became independent with help from India.
bangladesh
BANGLADESH
  • Soon after independence, Bangladesh was hit with massive floods and famine
bangladesh1
BANGLADESH
  • LAND OF RIVER DELTAS – VERY PRODUCTIVE LAND
  • PERIODIC FLOODING BECAUSE OF MONSOONS
  • EXTREME POVERTY
  • FEARS TODAY OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM
  • POLITICAL SYSTEM IS DEMOCRATIC BUT NOT VERY STABLE.
bangladesh flooding a perennial problem
BANGLADESH FLOODING: A PERENNIAL PROBLEM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3ax_v1Bnjc

pakistan today
PAKISTAN TODAY
  • MILITARY DICTATORSHIP SINCE 2000
  • HISTORICALLY, AN ALLY OF THE U.S.
  • AMBIGUOUS ROLE IN TERRORISM
pakistan s ethnic groups
Pakistan’s Ethnic groups
  • Punjabi: majority ethnic group that dominates politics and army
  • Pashtun: mountain region on the border of Afghanistan; government has little control over them; fierce protectors of their land & guests
  • Sindi: mostly rural, it is dominated by feudal families, like the Bhuttos
  • Baluch: sparsely settled; heroin smuggling is high; very poor
pakistan s connection with islamic terrorism
PAKISTAN’S CONNECTION WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM
  • In 1980, military dictator of Pakistan solidified his power by passing Islamization program, instituting sharia or Islamic law.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Relib-D3Uq8&feature=related
slide36
PAKISTANI INTELLIGENCE SECRETLY AIDED THE TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR
northwest frontier
NORTHWEST FRONTIER

LITTLE GOVERNMENT CONTROL OVER ARMED SEMI-NOMADIC TRIBES

OSAMA PROBABLY HIDING IN MOUNTAINS THERE

the islamic bomb
THE “ISLAMIC BOMB”
  • PAKISTAN EXPLODED ITS FIRST NUCLEAR DEVICE IN DESERT IN 1998.
  • DR. A.Q. KHAN RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS SECRET DEVELOPMENT, AND SHARED TECHNOLOGY WITH “ROGUE STATES” LIKE LIBYA, NORTH KOREA, MAYBE OTHERS
near nuclear confrontation over kashmir in 1998
NEAR-NUCLEAR CONFRONTATION OVER KASHMIR IN 1998
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwGNg0Uwry8&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
the end of musharaf
THE END OF MUSHARAF?
  • Musharaf dismissed the Supreme Court after he stepped down as head of the army
  • Lawyers protested
assassination of benazir bhutto
ASSASSINATION OF BENAZIR BHUTTO
  • Prior to parliamentary elections, opposition leaders were allowed back into the country
  • Benazir Bhutto returned, was assassinated
new prime minister sworn in transition back to democracy
NEW PRIME MINISTER SWORN IN – TRANSITION BACK TO DEMOCRACY?
  • Has freed imprisoned judges
  • Army remains strongest institution in country
  • Rebellion in Baluchistan province
  • Problems of poverty and lack of development
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