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INDIA AND PAKISTAN SINCE INDEPENDENCE. PARTITION. JINNAH AND PAKISTAN. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ElEYZ_BJl0M&feature=fvw. BORDER CEREMONY. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjcF6lmBqGs. The problem of Kashmir. Kashmir is India’s only Muslim majority territory

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INDIA AND PAKISTAN SINCE INDEPENDENCE

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INDIA AND PAKISTAN SINCE INDEPENDENCE


PARTITION


JINNAH AND PAKISTAN

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ElEYZ_BJl0M&feature=fvw


BORDER CEREMONY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjcF6lmBqGs


The problem of Kashmir

  • Kashmir is India’s only Muslim majority territory

  • India accuses Pakistan of waging a proxy war by arming militants

  • Jammu’s population is 2/3 Hindu

  • Kashmiris never voted; extremists/separatists were born

  • Why did the U.S. adopt Pakistan as its ally?


KASHMIR CONFLICT

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rmUiLwy7kI&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active


Nehru (1947)>>

Indian Politics

<<Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 80-84)

Rajiv Gandhi>> (1984-89)

>> Singh (2004-now)


NEHRU

  • LEFT BRITISH-TRAINED CIVIL SERVICE INTACT

  • INDIA A “ONE-PARTY DEMOCRACY” – Nehru was very popular and respected

  • Prime minister 1948-1966, when he died

  • NEUTRAL IN COLD WAR

  • FIVE YEAR PLANS

  • SOCIALIST ECONOMY – low growth rate. Highly controlled. Private businesses had “license raj.”


INDIRA GANDHI

  • NEHRU’S DAUGHTER

  • NOT RELATED TO MAHATMA GANDHI

  • POPULAR BUT ECONOMY DID POORLY IN 1970s

  • P.M. 1966-1977, 1980-84. ASSASSINATED BY A SIKH BODYGUARD.


A FAKE “EMERGENCY” – INDIA REMAINS A DEMOCRACY

  • INDIRA GANDHI TRIES TO GAIN DICTATORIAL POWERS WHEN SHE’S ACCUSED OF CORRUPTION IN 1975

  • JANATA DAL PARTY DEFEATS CONGRESS IN ELECTIONS IN 1977, RESTORES FULL DEMOCRACY AND CIVIL RIGHTS – First time Congress party is defeated.

  • DESPITE ITS PROBLEMS, INDIA REMAINS COMMITTED TO POLITICAL DEMOCRACY


RAJIV GANDHI

  • INDIRA’S SON

  • POPULAR

  • INTERVENES IN SRI LANKA CIVIL WAR

  • P.M. FROM 1984 UNTIL ASSASSINATED BY TAMIL SEPARATISTS IN 1991


MORE GANDHIS

  • Indira’s other son, Sanjay, died in a plane crash in 1980.

  • Rajiv’s widow, Sonia, is Italian-born. She is president of the Congress party.

  • Controversy about whether she should run for higher office.


ECONOMIC REFORMS – 1991 – THE BIG CHANGE

  • MANMOHAN SINGH becomes finance minister in 1991

  • Engineers major reforms to loosen up government control of the economy

  • Economic takeoff in past 20 years.

  • Singh is currently Prime Minister

  • Member of Congress Party


INDIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH


HINDU-MUSLIM TENSIONS

  • Ayodhya riots

  • Mumbai riots

  • 1992-93. Thousands dead.


HINDU NATIONALISM

  • BJP Party wins national elections in 1998.

  • Favors confrontation with Pakistan

  • Develops nuclear weapons program, acccomplishes little else.


INDIA’S ASSETS

  • GOOD TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE BUILT BY BRITISH (RAILROAD NETWORK)

  • PUSH FOR EDUCATION – MANY WELL-TRAINED PEOPLE

  • HUGE MIDDLE CLASS

  • HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES – CENTERED IN BANGALORE

  • WORLD’S BIGGEST DEMOCRACY

  • POLITICAL STABILITY

  • COMMON USE OF ENGLISH BY EDUCATED PEOPLE

  • ABLE TO FEED ITSELF THANKS TO “GREEN REVOLUTION”


BOLLYWOODWORLD’S LARGEST MOVIE INDUSTRY


INDIA’S PROBLEMS

  • MASSIVE POVERTY

  • CONFLICT BETWEEN CASTES & RELIGIONS

  • THREE WARS WITH PAKISTAN OVER KASHMIR – TERRORISTS FROM KASHMIR; 1962 border war with China

  • NUCLEAR STANDOFF WITH PAKISTAN


INDIAN PARADOX – POVERTY AND POWER


PAKISTAN AND BANGLADESH – Countries which were Muslim parts of British India before partition


PAKISTAN

  • ORIGINALLY TWO TERRITORIES, A THOUSAND MILES APART, SPEAKING TWO UNRELATED LANGUAGES

  • WEST PAKISTAN DOMINATED

  • WEST PAKISTAN HAD FERTILE LAND ONLY IN THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM


POLITICAL HISTORY

  • PAKISTAN ALTERNATED BETWEEN ELECTED DEMOCRACY AND MILITARY DICTATORSHIP

  • Shown at left: Zulfikar and Benazir Bhutto


Jinnah (1947)>>

Pakistan Politics

<<Zulfikar Bhutto (1973-77)

Benazir Bhutto>> (1988-90, 93-96)

Sharif (1990-93, 97-99)

Zardari (now)

<< Musharraf (1999-2008)


BENAZIR BHUTTO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jj8zqwfB3DM


CREATION OF BANGLADESH

  • In 1970s, Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan cracked down on politicians inEast Pakistan.

  • In 1971 election, East Pakistani leader Sheik Mujibur Rahman (right) won national elections.

  • The military government refused to accept the results.

  • East Pakistan seceded and became independent with help from India.


BANGLADESH

  • Soon after independence, Bangladesh was hit with massive floods and famine


BANGLADESH

  • LAND OF RIVER DELTAS – VERY PRODUCTIVE LAND

  • PERIODIC FLOODING BECAUSE OF MONSOONS

  • EXTREME POVERTY

  • FEARS TODAY OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM

  • POLITICAL SYSTEM IS DEMOCRATIC BUT NOT VERY STABLE.


BANGLADESH FLOODING: A PERENNIAL PROBLEM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3ax_v1Bnjc


PAKISTAN TODAY

  • MILITARY DICTATORSHIP SINCE 2000

  • HISTORICALLY, AN ALLY OF THE U.S.

  • AMBIGUOUS ROLE IN TERRORISM


Pakistan’s Ethnic groups

  • Punjabi: majority ethnic group that dominates politics and army

  • Pashtun: mountain region on the border of Afghanistan; government has little control over them; fierce protectors of their land & guests

  • Sindi: mostly rural, it is dominated by feudal families, like the Bhuttos

  • Baluch: sparsely settled; heroin smuggling is high; very poor


PAKISTAN’S CONNECTION WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

  • In 1980, military dictator of Pakistan solidified his power by passing Islamization program, instituting sharia or Islamic law.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Relib-D3Uq8&feature=related


PAKISTANI INTELLIGENCE SECRETLY AIDED THE TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR


MADRASAS


NORTHWEST FRONTIER

LITTLE GOVERNMENT CONTROL OVER ARMED SEMI-NOMADIC TRIBES

OSAMA PROBABLY HIDING IN MOUNTAINS THERE


THE “ISLAMIC BOMB”

  • PAKISTAN EXPLODED ITS FIRST NUCLEAR DEVICE IN DESERT IN 1998.

  • DR. A.Q. KHAN RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS SECRET DEVELOPMENT, AND SHARED TECHNOLOGY WITH “ROGUE STATES” LIKE LIBYA, NORTH KOREA, MAYBE OTHERS


NUCLEAR CRISIS


NEAR-NUCLEAR CONFRONTATION OVER KASHMIR IN 1998

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwGNg0Uwry8&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active


THE END OF MUSHARAF?

  • Musharaf dismissed the Supreme Court after he stepped down as head of the army

  • Lawyers protested


ASSASSINATION OF BENAZIR BHUTTO

  • Prior to parliamentary elections, opposition leaders were allowed back into the country

  • Benazir Bhutto returned, was assassinated


NEW PRIME MINISTER SWORN IN – TRANSITION BACK TO DEMOCRACY?

  • Has freed imprisoned judges

  • Army remains strongest institution in country

  • Rebellion in Baluchistan province

  • Problems of poverty and lack of development


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