Equipment efficiency availability p erformance and m aintenance
Download
1 / 80

Equipment Efficiency: Availability, P erformance and M aintenance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Equipment Efficiency: Availability, P erformance and M aintenance. Operations Analysis and Improvement 2010 Fall Dr. Tai-Yue Wang Industrial and Information Management Department National Cheng Kung University. Presentation.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Equipment Efficiency: Availability, P erformance and M aintenance' - loring


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Equipment efficiency availability p erformance and m aintenance

Equipment Efficiency:Availability, Performanceand Maintenance

Operations Analysis and Improvement

2010 Fall

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang

Industrial and Information Management Department

National Cheng Kung University


Presentation
Presentation

  • The role of maintenance is to insure the survivability and proper functioning of all company hardware.

    • Most maintenance departments are considered “a necessary evil”.

      • Investments required to improve production processes usually take on a low priority.


Presentation1
Presentation

  • Maintenance evolution, as well as maintenance technique evolution, has developed in parallel for many companies.

    • Remediate hardware failures.

    • Prevent future problems with the equipment.

    • Incorporate basic maintenance tasks into their daily production routine.

    • Predicting equipment breakdowns.


Introduction
Introduction

  • Maintenance’s primary objective is to maintain, at a high operative level, the productive resources in order to assure their service at an expected cost.

  • Maintenance is the “machine’s medicine”.

  • Determine the right moment to replace the equipment.

    • It may be better to simply unplug it.


Introduction1

Thinking

revolution

The 5S

Visual Control

Workforce optimization

Standard

operations

Poka-Yoke

Jidoka

1

20

11

12

9

TPM

One-Piece

flow

Multi-

functional

workers

7

16

5

14

Leveling

Production

Kanban

SMED

4

6

17

8

JUST IN TIME

15

18

19

13

10

3

2

Introduction

  • Elements that need maintenance.

    • Machines and tools.

    • Facilities (compressed air, heating,…)

    • Buildings (walls, illumination,…)

    • Information and transportation systems.


Introduction2

Thinking

revolution

The 5S

Visual Control

Workforce optimization

Standard

operations

Poka-Yoke

Jidoka

1

20

11

12

9

TPM

One-Piece

flow

Multi-

functional

workers

7

16

5

14

Leveling

Production

Kanban

SMED

4

6

17

8

JUST IN TIME

15

18

19

13

10

3

2

Introduction

  • Some companies subcontract maintenance.

  • Is contemplated in both the Just-in-time and the 20 keys (key number 9) for lean.

    • Improves the availability and performance rates of the equipment.


Types of maintenance
Types of maintenance

  • Corrective -> All industrial equipment is exposed to transitory (wear) or definitive breakdowns (catastrophic failure).

    • Affecting its functionality and performance.

    • Can represent high costs for enterprises.

  • Preventive -> The maintenance mission cannot only be repairing the breakdowns.

    • They should be able to get ahead of the breakdowns.


Corrective maintenance
Corrective maintenance

  • Also called breakdown maintenance.

    • Up to the 1950s it was virtually the only maintenance.

      • Machine stoppages hardly affected productive time.

      • Repairs were carried out in an effective way.


Types of corrective maintenance
Types of corrective maintenance

  • Urgent repairs.

    • Reestablishing the equipment into service.

    • Repair is carried out is temperally.

    • The remainder of the tasks will/can be scheduled for a future time.


Types of corrective maintenance1
Types of corrective maintenance

  • Scheduled corrective.

    • Appears as a result of urgent repairs.

      • Determine an appropriate time to repair the machine completely.

      • After repairing the damaged component

        • As good as new.

        • At least as it was before.


Repair problems
Repair problems

  • Repair tasks are performed quickly and under pressure, which can cause future problems.

  • Repair time can be very high because replacement part(s) may have to be ordered from a supplier.


Repair problems1
Repair problems

  • Accidents can take place because of poor maintenance safety measures.

  • Corrective maintenance policy implies higher labor costs.

    • This policy can be justified in some cases.

      • Equipment with a frequent replacement policy.

        • Like personal office computers.

    • When breakdown costs are small.

      • Light bulbs fail.


Types of preventive maintenance
Types of preventive maintenance

  • The preventive maintenance has two variants.

    • Systematic preventive maintenance.

    • Conditional preventive maintenance or predictive maintenance.


Systematic preventive maintenance
Systematic preventive maintenance

  • 1960s -> the General Electric Corporation systematized a new type of maintenance called planned maintenance.


Systematic preventive maintenance1
Systematic preventive maintenance

  • Planned maintenance arrived to Japan.

    • The bases of this systematic preventive maintenance process were established.

      • Systematic substitution of some machine components.


Systematic preventive maintenance2
Systematic preventive maintenance

  • Applied to general wear or use components.

    • Know with precision the component’s performance characteristics.


Systematic preventive maintenance3
Systematic preventive maintenance

  • Replacement policy might call for a component to be replaced every week or in other ways such as, every 300 working hours or every 1000 parts produced.


Conditional preventive maintenance
Conditional preventive maintenance

  • Also called predictive maintenance.

  • Systematic preventive maintenance can become very expensive.


Conditional preventive maintenance1
Conditional preventive maintenance

  • Conditional preventive maintenance is used to change components depending on their current state.

    • The useful life for costly components can be extended.

  • This type of maintenance best fits components where performance can be monitored.


Conditional preventive maintenance2
Conditional preventive maintenance

  • ISO 14000 (environmental norm) requires that industry avoid systematic preventive maintenance when working with environmentally harmful products.


Conditional preventive maintenance3
Conditional preventive maintenance

  • Predictive maintenance.

    • Look for correlations between multiple parameters and the degradation of a component.

      • Temperature (thermocouples),

      • Noises (phonometer).

      • Cracks (X-rays machine).

      • Pressure losses (manometer).

    • QS9000 recommends predictive maintenance.


Maintenance program implementation
Maintenance program implementation

  • Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.

    • Hidden small defects.

      • Difficult to detect and to observe -> It does not interfere with functionality.

        • Increase of friction in an axle.

    • Apparent small defects.

      • Are more noticeable-> They are normally not repaired.

        • Small vibrations on a machine.


Maintenance program implementation1
Maintenance program implementation

  • Execution under expectations.

    • The defects affect the equipment productivity.

    • the standards of quality will be violated.


Maintenance program implementation2
Maintenance program implementation

  • Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.

    • Intermittent stops.

      • The machine intermittently produces defect parts.

      • Small repairs are performed.

    • Stops and breakdowns.

      • Breakdowns are frequent.

  • Production equipment may not be as new as we would like them to be.

    • “Stops and breakdown” stage.


Maintenance program implementation3
Maintenance program implementation

  • Production equipment typically becomes more sophisticated/complex.

    • More expensive every year.

    • It has greater economic impact.

      • Repairs should be done at a faster rate.

  • Working shifts can also represent an obstacle for maintenance interventions.

    • Limits possible maintenance tasks and scheduling.


Maintenance program implementation4
Maintenance program implementation

  • The objective of maintenance is to efficiently oversee equipment throughout the equipment life cycle.

    • Cover the entire lifecycle

      • Implementing an effective corrective maintenance.

      • Preventive maintenance tasks.

      • Implementing predictive maintenance strategies.


Getting started
Getting started

  • Become familiar with the resources that will require maintenance.

    • Each maintained resource should be coded (resource id#).

  • Code the types of breakdowns and maintenance tasks.

    • In a historical data study -> Group failure causes.


Getting started1
Getting started

  • Maintenance should have the following two documents.

    • Facility Inventory.

      • Lists all equipments and their principle characteristics.

        • Code, record number, equipment type,…

    • Equipment History Files.

      • Data given by the equipment manufacturer.

      • Information about the location in the plant.

      • Types of spare parts needed.


Corrective maintenance implementation
Corrective maintenance implementation

  • Organize, in an effective way, the corrective maintenance procedures and actions.

    • Breakdown occurs -> Fill out a breakdown work order.

      • If the worker can solve it -> fill a report.

      • If not -> the work order will be sent to the maintenance department.

        • Work request order will be issued.

        • Maintenance workers will either repair the machine immediately or will schedule the repair.

        • The repair can be provisional or definitive.


Scheduled corrective maintenance
Scheduled corrective maintenance

  • Variability in the corrective maintenance tasks duration can be problematic.

    • Corrective orders and flow diagrams for repetitive repairs must be developed.

      • Materials and spare parts that should be utilized.

  • Maintenance workers’ tasks do not end with the equipment repair.

    • They should gather all the breakdown information.

    • Describe the process that was performed.


Scheduled corrective maintenance1
Scheduled corrective maintenance

  • Each machine should have its own file with breakdown records.

    • Analyze breakdown causes.

    • Anticipate future problems.

    • This file must be upgraded with each maintenance intervention.


Scheduled corrective maintenance2
Scheduled corrective maintenance

  • Corrective maintenance tasks do not only consist on changing the broken or malfunctioning components.

    • Study the causes and the frequency of the breakdowns.


Preventive maintenance implementation
Preventive maintenance implementation

  • Avoid a breakdown of any resource, while keeping maintenance cost as low as possible.

  • Two types of actions.

    • Inspections.

      • Observe and detect possible anomalies.

        • Frequent checkups that follow a specific inspection plan.

    • Revisions.

      • Scheduled equipment stops.

        • Systematic substitution of several machine components.

        • Carried out during the weekend.


Preventive maintenance implementation1
Preventive maintenance implementation

  • Preventive maintenance tasks’ scheduling is mandatory in the ISO norms.


Preventive maintenance implementation2
Preventive maintenance implementation

  • These tasks can be planned daily, weekly, monthly or even annually.

    • Scheduled at times when they do not affect the factory’s production plan.

    • Daily working problems force us to continuously reschedule these tasks.


Preventive maintenance implementation3
Preventive maintenance implementation

  • Equipment preventive maintenance tasks are also called PM orders.

    • Each PM order should be based on a study of the equipment breakdown causes.

      • FMEA tool described at the tools section.


Autonomous maintenance
Autonomous maintenance

  • PM orders carried out by the production workers.

    • Known as user maintenance orders.

  • They should be simple and graphically represented.

    • Many inspection tasks should be carried out every day.


Autonomous maintenance1
Autonomous maintenance

  • Significant amount of notices that could be easily handled by the production worker.

    • It takes more time to fill out the request order than to fix the problem


Autonomous maintenance2
Autonomous maintenance

  • Autonomous maintenance includes these small tasks and three daily preventive measures.

    • Cleaning, lubricating and checking.


Autonomous maintenance safety
Autonomous maintenance. Safety

  • Safety is one of the most important restrictions.

    • Autonomous tasks apply only for simple repair operations.

  • Repair or maintenance should never be performed if the knowledge required to fix the machine is high.


Autonomous maintenance safety1
Autonomous maintenance. Safety

  • It can be very challenging to convince production workers about the importance of maintenance tasks.

    • They do not consider their responsibility.


Autonomous maintenance3

Autonomous Supervision

7

Process Quality Assurance

6

Autonomous Maintenance Standards

5

Overall inspections

4

Cleaning and Lubricating Standards

3

Countermeasures to Sources of Contamination

2

1

Initial cleaning

Autonomous maintenance

  • Autonomous maintenance implementation process has a specific methodology.


Tpm total productive maintenance
TPM - Total Productive Maintenance

  • In the 1970s, Nakajima developed in Japan TPM.

    • New maintenance management philosophy.

  • English translation was not published until 1988.

    • JIPM – Japanese Institute of Plants Maintenance.

      • Grants the PM prize to the TPM top excellent companies.

        • 60% of the winning companies during the first 17 years are now part of the Toyota Group or suppliers of this Group.


Tpm total productive maintenance1
TPM - Total Productive Maintenance

  • Nakajima combined preventive maintenance theories with the total quality concept.

    • Nakajima developed the Overall Equipment Efficiency ratio.


Tpm keys
TPM keys

  • Maximize the Overall Equipment Efficiency.

    • Eliminating the six big losses.

  • Autonomous maintenance implementation.

    • In order to terminate the “I operate, you repair” mind set.

  • Preventive engineering.

    • Improving the equipments’ maintainability.


Tpm keys1
TPM keys

  • Training workers for maintenance improvements.

    • Propose methods for increasing the equipment availability.

  • Initial equipment management.

  • The objective of the TPM -> Zero Breakdowns.

    • Utilize tools such as the P-M analysis -> Explained in tools section.


Rcm reliability centered maintenance
RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance

  • RCM was created in the United States in the 1960s, to optimize the reliability of aeronautical equipment.

    • RCM was not utilized in nuclear power stations until the 1980s.

    • Recently has been implemented in the industrial world.


Rcm reliability centered maintenance1
RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance

  • Needs a complete maintenance and breakdown record for each item of equipment.

    • RCM objective is to determine the maintenance tasks that are more effective for the critical components.

      • FMEA, reliability analysis, statistical techniques.

    • It is necessary to have a preventive maintenance program implemented and running properly.


Fmea for equipment
FMEA for equipment

  • All defects have a root cause, and to eliminate future defects an action must be carried out.

    • Defect -> Gap between two elements

    • Cause -> Lack of lubrication or a loose fastener.

    • Action -> Grease or tighten the lose element.


Fmea for equipment1
FMEA for equipment

  • To determine a good preventive maintenance plan, all the possible breakdowns, their causes and their corrective actions must be analyzed.

    • The main tool to carry out this type of analysis is the FMEA for equipment (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis).

      • Is a guide to analyze, in an organized manner, causes of possible equipment breakdowns.

      • A group of workers is gathered to study the problems and failures



Fmea for equipment3
FMEA for equipment

  • Equipment functions.

    • The functions that the equipment carries out.

      • Provides compressed air during specific conditions.

  • Failure modes.

    • All the possible ways that the equipment can be forced to stop.

      • Breaks, blockage, leaks, etc.


Fmea for equipment4
FMEA for equipment

  • Failure effects.

    • All possible consequences of each failure are analyzed in detail.

      • Severity (S).

        • 1 being not very serious.

        • 4 very serious or 10.


Fmea for equipment5
FMEA for equipment

  • Failure causes.

    • The origin of the failure is analyzed.

    • Identify the anomaly that can lead to the failure.

      • Probability (P).

        • 1 not very frequent.

        • 4 very frequent or 10.


Fmea for equipment6
FMEA for equipment

  • Actual controls.

    • If, at the present time, some kind of control is carried out.

    • Detection (D)

      • 1 if the control does not always detect the cause

      • 4 if it always detects or 10.


Fmea for equipment7
FMEA for equipment

  • After the first part of the FMEA table has been completed, the Risk Priority Number (RPN) is calculated.

    • The product of the three quantified variables (S, P and D).

    • Ranking failures by RPN.

      • Analyze the causes that do not represent any threat.

      • Special attention must be paid to those effects that have been considered critical.


Fmea for equipment8
FMEA for equipment

  • The chosen plan of action and the employee responsible for carrying out this plan are registered in the same table utilized in the FMEA.

    • After a FMEA application arises, the necessity of developing a preventive maintenance plan is recommended.


Fmea for equipment9
FMEA for equipment

  • Preventive maintenance intervention periods (T).

    • Know the component damage/wear behavior curve.

      • Breakdowns and the time when the breakdowns occurred -> Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).

    • T is based on the corrective percentage that the company would like to support (K).


Reliability
Reliability

  • Reliability is defined as the probability that an equipment will work satisfactorily, during a certain period of time under some specific working conditions.

  • Reliability is a probability.

    • Relative frequency of breakdowns.


Reliability1
Reliability

  • All production equipment should work satisfactorily.

    • Failure can be triggered by an abrupt change in the component characteristic or by progressive damage.

  • Work satisfactorily for a specific period of time.

    • Maintain quality standards during a reasonable period of time.

      • RELIABILITY = QUALITY + TIME


Reliability2
Reliability

  • The component life or equipment life duration depends on working conditions.

    • Environmental (temperature or humidity).

    • Operational (continuous starts and stops, electrical strain).


Reliability3
Reliability

  • The system state depends on the primary group of elements that makes it work properly.

    • Each element has a random lifetime.

      • Estimate the lifetime of the components.

  • Reliability -> MBTF (Mean Time Between Failure)


Reliability and maintainability
Reliability and Maintainability

  • Maintainability -> probability that it must be repaired in a predetermined time following a specific repair procedure.


Reliability and maintainability1
Reliability and Maintainability

  • Maintainability depends on different factors.

    • Machine factors.

      • Accessibility or interchangeability among components.

    • Organizational factors.

      • Maintenance staff knowledge, documentation availability,…

    • Operative factors.

      • Ability of the manpower.

  • Is quantified through the MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery).


Reliability and statistical availability
Reliability and Statistical availability

  • Average between the middle time used in the equipment and the required production time

  • If the different times between breakdowns as well as each repair duration time are graphically represented this process.


Reliability the bathtub curve
Reliability - the Bathtub curve

  • Is a graphic representation of the failure rate l(t).

    • Probability that an element fails depending on its life use stage or status.

      • ZONE I. Infant period.

      • ZONE II. Useful period.

      • ZONE III. Waste period.


Reliability the bathtub curve zone i
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone I

  • Equipment set up and debug process.

  • Goes downhill because, as time moves forward, the probability of a component failure decreases.

  • The problems in this area can be avoided by making intensive tests or by exchanging troublemaker elements at an early stage adjustment period.


Reliability the bathtub curve zone ii
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone II

  • Zone II.

    • Failures randomly appear.

    • Electronic systems.

      • The curve formed is virtually horizontal.

    • In mechanical systems.

      • The curve normally has a slightly positive slope.


Reliability the bathtub curve zone iii
Reliability – The bathtub curve: Zone III

  • Zone III.

    • Failures come from components far more quickly.

    • Critical components replacement is strongly recommended.


P m analysis
P-M Analysis

  • Defects reasons.

    • Sporadic(零星) losses.

    • Chronic(慢性) losses.

  • Sporadic losses can be corrected using tools already studied.


P m analysis1
P-M Analysis

  • The P-M analysis is responsible for eliminating chronic losses.

    • Considered “natural” according to their root sources.

    • P - > Phenomenon.

    • M - > Mechanism.


P m analysis2
P-M Analysis

  • Reliability that has been studied has two aspects to consider.

    • Intrinsic reliability.

      • Due to the design and production of the component.

    • Operative reliability.

      • Due to the component use and the maintenance process.


P m analysis3
P-M Analysis

  • P-M analysis should be applied after conventional improvement.

  • Six sigma is also suitable to carry out this type of study.


Maintenance management
Maintenance management

  • A maintenance department should properly manage and control their costs.

  • Unlimited number of indicators that can be used for maintenance department performance.

    • Manpower performance, hours dedicated to urgent work, repair cost, availability,...


Maintenance management1
Maintenance management

  • Maintenance management is a difficult task because it frequently does not have management’s support.

    • As long as the maintenance department does not exceed its assigned budget, no one pays much attention to the maintenance department activities or expenses.


Maintenance costs
Maintenance costs

  • Using economic terms, maintenance management helps to control deviations in the firm’s budget and also to determine investment needs to reduce the costs.


Maintenance costs1
Maintenance costs

  • There are two alternatives or opposing costs.

    • Non-maintenance costs.

      • Opportunity costs, quality costs, production manpower cost, etc.

    • Maintenance costs.

      • Breakdown prevention costs, anomalies detection cost, inspection resources costs, etc.


Maintenance costs2
Maintenance costs

  • (1) -> Maintenance investment increases the equipment availability and at the same time

  • (2) -> An increase of the availability, supposes large investments.


Summary
Summary

  • This chapter has provided an overview of maintenance activities, a critical aspect of Lean Manufacturing. Maintenance planning and monitoring activities are critical factors for Lean Enterprise efficiency.


Summary1
Summary

  • Unfortunately, maintenance is normally perceived as a necessary evil, and is not always seen as a critical engineering activity. This chapter has outlined some of the maintenance policies and procedures that can be used to obtain the goal for any production system: operate as efficient as possible at the lowest cost.


ad