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Developing Master Plans for Constructing Tribal Correctional Facilities and Multi-Service Centers. Tribal Justice and Safety Conference July 30, 2007 Phoenix, AZ. Shelley Zavlek , JPI Mark Goldman, JPI Patricia Broken Leg, BIA Shelley Zavlek. Why Plan?

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Developing Master Plans for Constructing Tribal Correctional Facilities and Multi-Service Centers

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Developing master plans for constructing tribal correctional facilities and multi service centers l.jpg

Developing Master Plans for Constructing Tribal Correctional Facilities and Multi-Service Centers

Tribal Justice and Safety Conference

July 30, 2007

Phoenix, AZ


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  • Shelley Zavlek, JPI

  • Mark Goldman, JPI

  • Patricia Broken Leg, BIA

  • Shelley Zavlek

Why Plan?

Planning Based on Populations, Missions and Programs

Case Study: Rosebud Sioux Youth Wellness and Renewal Center

DOJ, OJP/BJA Tribal Planning Grants


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Justice System and Facility Planning:Dollar$ and $ense

Tribal Justice and Safety Conference

July 30, 2007

Phoenix, AZ

Shelley Zavlek

Justice Planners International


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Why Assess What We Are Doing?

The main and most compelling reason for System Planning and Reform:

We needlessly and inappropriately lock up

WAAAY

too many kids and adults in this country

at staggering social and economic costs!


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Economic Impact

In 2000, as a nation we spent$10-15 billion on juvenile justice, with the lion’s share spent on secure confinement.

$


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Economic Impact

States spent $29.5 billion for prisons in 2001, about a $5½ billion increase from 1996, after adjusting for inflation.

$


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Economic Impact

State correctional expenditures increased 145% in 2001 constant dollars from $15.6 billion in FY 1986 to $38.2 billion in FY 2001.

$


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Threshold Question:

Is our level of reliance on incarceration of adults and youth necessary?


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JuvenileViolent CrimeIs Declining

The juvenile Violent Crime Index arrest rate in 2003 was lower than in any year since at least 1980 and 48% below the peak year of 1994


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JuvenileProperty Crime Is Declining

The juvenile arrest rate for Property Crime Index offenses in 2003 was 46% below its levels in 1980


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How has that affected the Rate of Juvenile Confinement?

Juvenile Offenders held in Residential Placement Facilities


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How has that affected the Rate of Juvenile Confinement?

Juvenile Confinement Has Increased by

almost 100%


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In every state except Vermont, the custody rate for minority offenders exceeded the rate for whites

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report – NCJJ/ OJJDP


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U.S. Compared with Other Nations:

Rates per 100,000 population

Note: Precise comparisons are difficult to make due to differences in methods and basis of data collection.


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U.S. Compared with Other Nations:Adults In Confinement

Federal and State prison populations:

1970 – 200,000 adults

2002 – 1,300,000 adults

Over 600 inmates per 100,000 adults

+ 700,000 inmates in jail

Highest adult incarceration number and rate

in the WORLD!

Source: New York Times, 1/15/07, The Mentally Ill, Behind Bars


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U.S. Compared with Other Nations:

Rates per 100,000 population

Note: Includes pre-trial detainees.

Source: World Prison Population List (6th ed.), Int’l Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College


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The Question We Need to Ask:

Is our level of reliance on confinement effective?


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Programmatic Impact:Recent Research

  • Impacts of youth detention/incarceration:

    • Increased recidivism

    • Increased re-offending

    • Aggravated condition of mentally ill youth

    • Youth at greater risk of self-harm

    • Negative impact on re-enrollment in school

    • Reduced success in labor market

Source: The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities, JPI, November 2006


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Economic Impact

  • Secure facilities are:

  • Expensive to build

  • Expensive to operate

  • Not effective for many offenders


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Lifetime Cost of Secure Beds

You will pay the cost of construction about every 38 months for the life of your building.

10 x Cost of Construction


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Impact On Service Delivery

  • Unnecessary reliance on detention and incarceration drains available funds away from interventions that:

  • Work as well and often better

  • Cost far less

  • Reach more offenders


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Danger:

If confinement is a hammer and the only tool in your toolbox, then every problem begins to look like a nail.


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Danger:


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Case Study: Juvenile Tribal CenterDollars & $ense of Secure Confinement

40 Beds – overcrowded, to be replaced

Proposed 80-bed facility at cost of:

$ 10,900,000Building, land & bond fees

$ 266,000Monthly cost of operations

$389,767monthly cost of operations and debt financing over 10 years


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Juvenile Tribal Center: System Assessment

Careful evaluation of needs achieved through a comprehensive system assessment reveals that with improved operational efficiency and availability of alternative programs and services the tribe may need only 60 beds, which it can design to expand to 80+ beds in the future.


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Juvenile Center System Assessment: Projected Bedspace Needs

60 Bed Alternative:

$ 8,600,000building, land & bond fees

$297,651Monthly cost of operations ($200,000) and debt financing ($97,651) over 10 years

$92,116monthly savings vs. 80-bed option

Source: McMillen, M. 1998. Planning juvenile detention facilities: The real costs. Journal for Juvenile Justice and Detention Services 13(Spring):49­57.


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Building a Continuum of Care

What types of services can you purchase for $92,000 per month?

  • 10 Shelter carebeds @ $120/day = $ 36,000

  • 20 Daily units electronic monitoring @ $18/person/day = $ 10,800

  • 10 slots of day-reporting (tutoring, counseling,

  • skill building) @ $15,000/month = $ 15,000

  • $ 61,800

$31,000/month left over for family intervention, substance abuse counseling, community-based services, etc.


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Immediate Economic Benefit to Kids County

For the cost of holding 80 juveniles in secure confinement the tribe is able to serve 100+ juvenilesand their families and provide support services in the community.


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Long-term Economic Benefits


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How do we go about changing our level of reliance on secure confinement of adults and youth?


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Comprehensive System Assessment

Conduct a comprehensive system assessment that examines all factors that define how your adult and juvenile justice system is working.

GOAL: Maximize system efficiency and effectiveness


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Keys to System Change:

  • Establish a comprehensive range of sanctions and services that are responsive to the particular needs of your tribe

  • Organize policies, practices and services to provide a coordinated response

  • Maintain sufficient capacity in programs and services to ensure a timely response

  • Adopt explicit policies and guidelines that govern how the system will operate and services will be utilized


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Justice System andFacility Planning:Dollar$ and $ense

Conference Name

July 30, 2007

Phoenix, AZ

Shelley Zavlek

Justice Planners International

201-768-6839

[email protected]


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