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Ch. 32– Warm-up #1 (31.4). Which 3 nations invaded other countries in the 1930s? Why did the US embrace isolationism? What term refers to giving in to aggression to maintain peace? Why did Japan invade Manchuria?. Italy, Japan, and Germany (Axis Powers)

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ch 32 warm up 1 31 4
Ch. 32– Warm-up #1 (31.4)
  • Which 3 nations invaded other countries in the 1930s?
  • Why did the US embrace isolationism?
  • What term refers to giving in to aggression to maintain peace?
  • Why did Japan invade Manchuria?
  • Italy, Japan, and Germany (Axis Powers)
  • Feared that political ties could pull us into a war
  • Appeasement
  • Natural resources (coal and iron)
a new war
A New War
  • The nonaggressionpact with the Soviets allowed Hitler to move forward
  • In 1939, Germany invades Poland
    • Britainand Francedeclare war on Germany as a result but Poland falls before they could help
  • Hitler was using a new strategy known as blitzkrieg
    • Speed, surprise, and massive force allowed for quick defeat

Molotov (USSR) and Ribbentrop (Germany)

soviets join forces
Soviets Join Forces
  • The nonaggression pact had promised to divide Polandbetween Germany and Russia
    • When Germany defeats Poland, the Soviets sends troops to eastern Polandand then the Balticstates
  • While France waited for war, Hitler took control of Denmarkand Norway
the fall of france
The Fall of France
  • Hitler’s strategy to slip through the battle lines proved successful.
    • Pinned down in Dunkirk, the British had to send rescue vessels for beaten French forces
  • By June 14 of 1940, Pariswas captured and on June22, France surrendered
    • Charles de Gaulleset up an exiledFrench government in Britain
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • With France out of the picture, Germany focused on Britain
  • Churchill, the English leader, refused to surrender
  • In an attempt to destroy morale, the German air forces targeted major cities
  • Using radarand Enigma(German codemachine) allowed the British to fight back
    • Eventually Hitler had to abandon his plans, giving the Allies new confidencethat Hitler could be stopped
the mediterranean
The Mediterranean
  • Having given up on Britain, Hitler will focus on the Mediterranean
  • Italyhad been unsuccessful at capturing the Suez Canal
  • With the British winning, Hitler sent General Rommelin and the tied turned against the Allies
war in the balkans
War in the Balkans
  • Planning to invade the USSR, Hitler began attacking the Balkan countries
  • They quickly surrendered to the Nazis, with only 2 exceptions
    • Yugoslaviatook 11days
    • Greecetoo 17
invasion of the ussr
Invasion of the USSR
  • With the Balkans in control, Hitler could invade the Soviet Union
  • On June 22, 1941, Hitler unleashed Operation Barbarossaand launched an invasion on the USSR
  • As the Soviets retreated, they employed the scorched-earthpolicy against the Nazis
  • Despite their apparent defeat, the Soviets would not surrender
  • The Germans also refused to retreat, resulting in 500,000deaths
us aid to the allies
US Aid to the Allies
  • FDR, recognizing the need to help the Allies, abandoned neutrality and began selling and delivering goods to the Allies
  • Hitler employed unrestricted submarine warfare
  • FDR and Churchill will meet and sign the Atlantic Charter
    • Declaration that there should be free trade and democracy everywhere (this would become the plan for the post-war world)
the power of hitler s speeches
The Power of Hitler’s Speeches
  • Imagine that your country has been utterly ruined and for the last 10 years your government has been telling you that things will get better, you’re just going to have to wait a little while. At the same time, you go to a speech and hear this
and now
And Now:
  • Don’t forget that you have another USA TestPrep due by the end of THIS weekend!
    • “The Warring World”
    • 30 point CURVE!!! Good only if you actually attempt the quiz. Automatic quiz extra credit IF you score an 80 or better WITHOUT the curve (retry counts)
  • Complete the Chapter 32 – Sect 1 Worksheet (6 will definitely need the book, others will require you remembering today’s lecture)
  • Complete the Chapter 32 Vocab X-Word
    • Quiz will be Wednesday
ch 32 warm up 2 32 1
Ch. 32– Warm-up #2 (32.1)
  • What prompted England and France to declare war on Germany?
  • What German strategy used surprise and overwhelming force to defeat enemies?
  • What WWII English/ American document upheld free trade and democracy?
  • Germany’s invasion of Poland
  • Blitzkrieg
  • Atlantic Charter
the beginnings
The Beginnings
  • Hitler believed the “Aryans” were a master race and all other were inferior and should be eliminated
    • This became known as the Holocaust
  • There was a longstanding hatred of Jewsin Europe
  • In 1935, Germany passed the Nuremberg Laws that took away rightsfrom Jews
kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
  • An angry Jewish youth killed a German diplomatin Parisin Nov 1938
  • Nazis in Germany responded by attacking Jewish homes, businesses, and synagoguesacross Germany
  • The “night of broken glass” marks the beginning of a massive increase in Nazi persecutionof the Jews

11 November 1938

isolation
Isolation
  • Jews tried escapingbut were eventually shut out of foreign nations
  • Hitler responded to this “problem” by forcing Jews to livein certain cities with special ghettosestablished.
    • Ghettos were overcrowded, underfed, diseaseridden, and prisons
the final solution
The Final Solution
  • Hitler tired of waiting for the Jews to simply starve out, so he introduced a “final solution” that called for the genocideof all Jews
    • Systematic killing of an entire race/ethnicity
  • Hitler targeted other groups as well: Gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, insane, the disabled, and the incurable
mass killings
Mass Killings
  • Hitler used the SS to hunt down and kill all Jews and their friends
  • Those who were not killed were shipped to concentration/labor camps
  • In 1942, the camps began exterminating as many as 6,000 people a day using gas chambers
    • The largest was Auschwitz, where weak Jews were killed the day they arrived
  • Roughly 6 million Jews died
video auschwitz
Video: Auschwitz
  • From the moment they arrived at the concentration camp, Jews and other Holocaust victims were treated like animals, and only a lucky group survived the experience.
  • This is their story
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • Knowing Japan’s plans to capture SE Asia(our colonies), the US cut off oilshipments to Japan in 1941
  • Japan continued their campaigns but recognized the need to eliminate the US fleetin Hawaii
  • On Dec. 7, 1941, Japan launched a “surprise” attack on Pearl Harbor, and within hours had destroyed most of the US naval fleet
    • The US declared war on Japan(and its allies) the next day
japanese victories
Japanese Victories
  • Japan easily captured the colonies of SE Asia, spreading a message of “EastAsia for the Asiatics”
    • They quickly became conquerorsrather than liberators
  • The Japanese seemed unbeatable
allies slow the japanese
Allies Slow the Japanese
  • In April of 1942, we successfully bombed Tokyo, demonstrating that Japanwas vulnerable
  • Using aircraft carriers, we began using planesto attack ships, stopping the Japanese movement
  • The Battle of Midway(island near Hawaii) finally turned the tide of the war in the Pacific
allies go on the attack
Allies Go on the Attack
  • With General MacArthurin control, a new strategy was formed
  • Island-hopping involved attacking smaller, under defended islands to get closer to Japan
  • At the Battle of Guadalcanal, we eliminated a major base the Japanese were trying to build
ch 32 warm up 3 32 3
Ch. 32– Warm-up #3 (32.3)
  • What was the largest Nazi extermination camp?
  • What term refers to the night of attacks on Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues?
  • What was the goal of Hitler’s “Final Solution”?
  • Put in chronological order: Holocaust, Nuremberg Laws, Kristallnacht (add to SG)
  • Auschwitz
  • Kristallnacht
  • Genocide of all Jews
  • Holocaust, Nur. Laws, Kristallnacht
allies turn the tide
Allies turn the Tide
  • General Eisenhowerand the Britishtook back North Africa in 1943
  • As the same time, Hitler was doubling his efforts in the USSR
    • The Battle of Stalingrad was nearly lost when the Russian winterset in
    • The German army, facing death by freezing surrendered
  • The Soviets began pushing them westward
allies at home
Allies at Home
  • Civilians in all nations contributed greatly in the war effort (another total war)
    • British and Soviets gave their lives, others gave resources
  • Factories converted(cars to tanks, typewriters to bullets)
  • Consumer goods also had to be rationed
  • Propagandareturned
limiting civil rights
Limiting Civil Rights
  • Pearl Harbor led many to hatred of Japanese Americans.
  • Propaganda led to fear and in Feb 1942, FDR called for internment of Japanese Americans because they could be a threat
    • Most were American born
d day
D-Day
  • A plan was put in place to take back continental Europe
  • June 6, 1944 – the allies launch the largest land and sea attack in history on the beaches of Normandy(northern France)
  • Alliessuffered heavy losses but ultimately won the battle
battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge
  • Facing a war on two fronts, Hitler focused his attention on the west
  • Although initially successful, the Allies fought back and the Germans retreated
  • This would be the last German offensive. The war in Europe quickly came to a close
  • V-E Day came on May9, 1945with an unconditionalGerman surrender
    • Hitler and FDR had already died
japanese in retreat
Japanese in Retreat
  • After Guadalcanal, the Japanese were in retreat
  • As America advanced on Japan, they employed kamikazetactics to take out ships (suicidepilots with bombfilled planes)
  • As America took the Japanese on, huge losseswere suffered
    • Iwo Jima – 1 month – 6,800 Americans, 18,800 Japanese
    • Okinawa – less than 3 months – 12,000 to 100,000
japanese surrender
Japanese Surrender
  • After Okinawa, Japan was the next target
  • It was estimated that the Allies might lose 500,000soldiers
  • Trumandecided to use the A-bomb
    • Warned Japan
    • Aug 7, 1945 – Hiroshima
    • Aug 9 – Nagasaki
  • Each bomb killed 70,000+ instantly and many more from radiation
  • Japan surrendered on Sept. 2
devastation
Devastation
  • 40million Europeans dead (2/3 civilian)
  • Citieswere demolished
  • Agriculturewas destroyed
  • Roadswere destroyed, leaving the cities to starve because they could not get supplies
postwar governments
Postwar Governments
  • Many countries had no desire to let the old government return to power (Italy, France, Germany)
  • The CommunistParty had become more popular
    • Got elected using strikes, but power slowly waned as economies rebuilt
nuremberg trials
Nuremberg Trials
  • 23 nations put Nazi war criminals on trial
  • 22 Nazi leaders were charged with “crimes against humanity”
    • Top leaders committed suicide
postwar japan
Postwar Japan
  • Japan suffered like Europe
  • America forced Japan to disband their military (demilitarization), leaving only police
  • We then turned toward democratization, created a democratically elected government
and now1
And Now:
  • Finish and compile your notebook:
  • Unit 7B Notebook – Ch. 31-32
    • Study Guide
    • Notes
    • Vocab (Ch31-32)
    • Worksheets (4 pages front and back)
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