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Who Will Survive?. Copy the chart below into your spiral. Describe (in complete sentences) the environment of the M&M’s. What color of M&Ms would be more common in the “population” if we allowed them to divide and we continued to prey on them?

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who will survive
Who Will Survive?

Copy the chart below into your spiral.

  • Describe (in complete sentences) the environment of the M&M’s.
  • What color of M&Ms would be more common in the “population” if we allowed them to divide and we continued to prey on them?
  • Say the environment was candy corn instead of chocolate chips.. What would we predict to occur with our M&M population?
chapter 15 evolution

Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asfVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

Chapter 15 – Evolution

summarize natural selection
Summarize natural selection.
  • There are variations within a species.
  • More offspring are produced than can survive.
  • They compete for limited resources.
  • Those with the best genetic variations survive to reproduce and pass on those genes to their offspring.
  • Over time, the most favorable traits spread in that population.
charles darwin father of evolution
Charles DarwinFather of Evolution
    • Studied the Galapagos Island finches, tortoises, and iguanas.
  • Observed: Enormous number of species live on Earth
  • Species: interbreed organisms that can produce healthy, fertileoffspring
slide7

Adapted to eating fruits and seeds

Adapted to eating cacti

darwin s conclusions
Darwin’s Conclusions:
  • Struggle for Existence: organisms compete for resources (winners and losers)
    • food, water, and space
  • Not everyone can survive!
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlhLOWTnVoQ
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vo3INoJZLA
variation
Variation
  • Physical differences among the same species due to their environment or mutation
  • CAN interbreed.
  • Examples – Rabbits – varying fur colors (white, black, brown, etc). Different color- same species.
biodiversity
Biodiversity
  • A variety of organisms inhabiting an area.
  • Examples – All trees, plants, squirrels, birds, insects, etc. that live in a city park.
natural selection example
Natural Selection Example
  • Which rabbit has a better chance of surviving in the North Pole? Why?
natural selection example1
Natural Selection Example

Oh, snap, I just found dinner.

Gosh darn it, no rabbits here.

slide16

All the brown rabbits die

Only one white rabbit dies

we can say that the rabbits evolved into fat white rabbits the process is called evolution
- We can say that the rabbits evolved into fat white rabbits.- The process is called evolution.
darwin s conclusions1
Darwin’s Conclusions:

2. Survival of the Fittest: (AKA- Natural Selection)

  • Individuals that are genetically suited to their environment will be more likely to survive and reproduce
  • Survivors have better genes for that environment and therefore transfer that trait to their offspring for better survival and reproduction
fitness
Fitness
  • Fitness- The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce
slide25
NOTE!

The population, NOT the individual, changes as a result of evolution.

stop pair share
Stop, Pair, Share
  • Describe the an environment this moth population was taken from.
  • Why do we see more dark moths in generation 3 than generation 1?
slide28

This species changed and adapted to its environment over time

Survives the best, therefore make more babies, therefore more giraffes with longer necks

Die off

Live a little longer, but eventually Die off

figure 22 12 evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations
Figure 22.12 Evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations

Over several generations, the insects would become

resistant to the pesticides.

darwin s conclusions2
Darwin’s Conclusions:

3. Descent with modification –

  • All species evolved from ancestors with changes, but look similar to ancestors
    • implies species have a common descent
slide33

Adaptation – (think advantage)

      • Any inheritable trait that increases the chances of survival and reproduction
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R5QxUR-mZVM
    • Niche: place and role of each organism in the environment
          • where organisms live, what they eat, their predators, and biotic conditions
adaptation
Adaptation
  • Mimicry : An organism copies the appearance of another species.
slide37

Milk Snake

Coral Snake

behavior
Behavior
  • Definition – way an organism reacts to changes in its environment.
  • Examples – Geckos change color, skunks spray scent, and porcupines use quills for protection.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gAxbxxmYZ8
plant adaptations
Plant Adaptations
  • Broad leaf in low sunlight
  • Needle like leaves in high sunlight
plant adaptations1
Plant Adaptations
  • Taproots for deep ground water
  • Fibrous roots for surface water
plant adaptations2
Plant Adaptations
  • Seed dispersal (birds, burrs, twirrly birds, ground droppings-acorns)
slide46

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEDxThDINgQ

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1Ib0-BlBKU
speciation
Speciation
  • Definition – Creation of new species from one common ancestor.
  • These new species CANNOT interbreed.
  • Examples – Tortoises and finches (birds) on each of the Galapagos Islands.
3 types of speciation

3 types of Speciation

Creation of a new species from one common ancestor.

speciation1
Speciation
  • Creation of new species from one species
  • THESE NEW ORGANISMS CANNOT INTERBREED

(CAN’T MAKE FERTILE BABIES!!)

1 behavioral isolation
1. Behavioral Isolation
  • Differences in behavior keep organisms from breeding.
    • Differences in courtship rituals
    • Difference in song
2 geographic isolation
2. Geographic Isolation
  • Separated by geographic barriers
    • Rivers
    • Mountains
    • Water
    • Roads
  • Genetic changes in one

group do not get passed on

to the other group

3 temporal isolation
3. Temporal Isolation
  • Different times of reproduction

Pollination /flowering

mating seasons

slide57

Tigon a hybridization of a Male tiger and female lioness

  • Liger is a hybrid cross between a male Lion and a female tigress
what about ligers and tiglons
What about Ligers and Tiglons??

No, humans did not create a new species.

A liger and another Liger can not mate – they cannot have offspring – therefore a liger is not a new species.

think pair share
Think, Pair, Share

Imagine you are the teacher grading evolution journals. All of the journals are for the same journal question. You, of course, made clear to the students that they are to work separately, and that they are not to copy each other\'s work. As you start reading, you realize that 10 consecutive words were identical between two of the journals.

think pair share1
Think, Pair, Share

1.What might this suggest? Would you be 100% sure?

2. What if 30 consecutive words were the same?

think pair share2
Think, Pair, Share

As you read more closely, you realize that all the punctuation marks, grammar mistakes and spelling errors also match exactly. In fact, 98% of papers are exactly alike.

think pair share3
Think, Pair, Share

3. Would this new realization make you more certain? Why or why not?

4. Let’s pretend that the 98% similarity is not in journal entries, but rather, the DNA between 2 different species of organisms. How might the similarity in DNA be evidence in evolution?

1 fossils
1) Fossils
  • Found in different layers, which represents life forms at different times
  • Show when organisms became extinct and how they have changed over time
  • Certain fossils are only found in certain layers
slide65

Look at V and III.

More modern forms of life have evolved from earlier life forms.

Complexity

2 geographic distribution
2) Geographic Distribution
  • Populations of the same species adapt to different geographic environments and change over time (descent with modification)
geographic distribution of living species
Geographic Distribution of Living Species

Beaver

Beaver

Muskrat

Beaver andMuskrat

Coypu

Capybara

Coypu andCapybara

NORTH AMERICA

Muskrat

SOUTH AMERICA

Capybara

Coypu

3 similarities in embryology
3) Similarities in Embryology
  • Vertebrates go through similar early stages of development where the embryonic cells develop in similar patterns to produce common tissues and organs of all vertebrates
  • Similar embryology also suggests similar genes
slide70

Which organism is most closely related to the salamander?

Fish Salamander Turtle Chick Rabbit Human

4 homologous body structure
4) Homologous Body Structure
  • Different mature body parts that are similar in structure but different in function
  • ***Four limbs of all vertebrates suggests they descended from common ancestors
slide73

The fact that all these animals have the same bones suggests that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

homologous body structures
Homologous Body Structures

Turtle

Alligator

Bird

Mammal

Ancient lobe-finned fish

**The color coordination of the bones indicate that they came from the same embryonic tissue; therefore, they are homologous.

vestigial organs
Vestigial Organs
  • Structures that are useless or reduced in size of one organism but are homologous and useful to another organism
  • Examples:
    • Tailbone in humans
    • Femur bone in whales and snakes
vestigial organs1
Vestigial Organs

Femurs are used to walk—it is the largest leg bone in humans.

Whales have femurs, yet they cannot walk.

This is an example of a vestigial structure.

5 dna sequences
5) DNA Sequences
  • Similar base pair sequences in DNA can link similar organisms in evolutionary descent
    • Therefore, we can also determine amino acid sequences, too
more than anything else an organism dna is the most accurate at determining how close species are
More than anything else, an organism DNA is the most accurate at determining how close species are.

Which species is the unknown most closely related to?

what is evolution
Whatis evolution?
  • Evolution is change over time.
    • Organisms change and adapt to their environments over millions of years.

What must change in order for an organism’s species to change and adapt over time?

  • What would happen to an organism’s species if it didn’t adapt and evolve?
evolution in genetic terms
Evolution in Genetic terms
  • Any change (mutation) in the allele contribution from each parent that is passed down through generations

N = long neck

n = short neck

n

+

N

natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Survival of the fittest!
  • Natural selection is an example of the major mechanism by which evolution occurs.
  • The organism that has the best genes (the best adapted) for that environment will go on to survive and reproduce successfully.
ecological succession
Ecological succession
  • Gradual change in the growth of plants in an ecosystem
  • These changes in the environment over time lead to changes (evolution) in the organisms that inhabit that area.
  • Env. Change organism changeevolutiongenetic change/mutation
hungry hungry birds
Hungry, Hungry…Birds!
  • Expectations:
    • Anyone who is not responsible enough to maintain safe behavior at all times will no longer participate in the activity and will become an observer.
    • Today’s grade will be half from participation and half from your Exit Ticket
    • Take 1 minute and tape/glue in the tables under your Do-Now
the rules
The Rules
  • Each students will be given a spoon, fork, knife, binder clip, or straw
  • You are now a very hungry bird. The tool you are given is your “beak”. You can only use your beak to pick up food.
  • The cup is your stomach. It must remain upright at all times.
  • Food must be picked up one at a time.
  • When time is called, everyone must immediately stand up and not “eat” anything else!
analysis results in spiral
Analysis/Results (in spiral)
  • In this experiment, what is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable? (Excluding trial 5)
  • Explain why it is better to have the data from the entire class averaged together when assessing results, rather than using only your own data.
cladogram a k a evolutionary or phylogenic trees
Cladograma.k.a. evolutionary or phylogenic trees
  • Cladogram= represents the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
  • Links organisms with common ancestors
  • Shows evolutionary relationships
classification
Classification
  • Remember Linnaeus?
    • He developed the taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  • We use this same concept of classification, but simply represent it in a different way.
cladogram
Cladogram
  • The tips of the tree represent groups of descendent taxa (often new species)
  • The nodes (or points where the lines come together) on the tree represent the common ancestors of those descendents
example cladogram
Example Cladogram
  • All life on earth is related, and can be represented in a single tree.
  • What do the colored circles represent?
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