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Economic and Development Problems in South Africa and Africa Session 9 – Primary Education in Southern Africa & how to think…. Aims for today. Hand in first draft of thesis ________________________________________

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Economic and Development Problems in South Africa and AfricaSession 9– Primary Education in Southern Africa& how to think…

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Aims for today

  • Hand in first draft of thesis

________________________________________

  • Comparing South Africa with 3 neighbouring countries – cross national comparisons
  • Understanding sample selection bias using education
    • Important for test / life / thought !!
    • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
recap viva mzansi
RECAP - Viva Mzansi
  • Grade 6  13 years olds
  • Complete and utter disgrace – government failure on a national scale
  • Wholesale failure of the government to provide the most basic tool needed for mobility, or even dignified living.

40.2%

27.2%

cross national comparisons
Cross-national comparisons?
  • Are cross-national comparisons valid?
    • Inter-national heterogeneity?
      • Population? Spending?
    • Sample Selection?

?

[1] 2006 data

[2] 2005 data

[3] 2004 data

[4] 2007 data

[5] 2007 data from (DBE, Macro Indicator Trends in Schooling: Summary report 2011 2011, 25) since it was not available in UNESCO (2010)

  • NER = The number of children of official primary school age (according to ISCED9726) who are enrolled in primary education
  • as a percentage of the total children of the official school age population
enrolments
 Enrolments

Spending 

sample selection test
Sample Selection (TEST)
  • What is a sample?
    • An entity that is representative of a class; a specimen.
    •  A set of elements drawn from and analyzed to estimate the characteristics of a population
  • What is the purpose of sampling?
    • Censuses are expensive
    • We still want to make inferences about a population (economics / politics / science
  • What Does Sample Selection Bias Mean?‘A type of bias caused by choosing non-random data for statistical analysis. The bias exists due to a flaw in the sample selection process, where a subset of the data is systematically excluded (or included) due to a particular attribute. The exclusion of the subset can influence the statistical significance of the test, or produce distorted results.’
    • EXAMPLES?
      • Attrition bias / Survivor bias (stocks / child illness)
      • Voluntary bias (smoking survey)
      • Bowls is the most dangerous sport on earth
      • Survey – NIDS numeracy / LFP
      • Others?
    • Questions to ask:
      • “Is this representative of the population I’m interested in?
      • Is there any possible selection mechanism involved?
exercise
Exercise
  • In groups of 3
    • Think of 1 example of sample selection bias that you have personally encountered.
      • {it doesn’t have to be from an actual sample that was drawn}
    • Think of 2 examples of sample selection bias that we have not mentioned yet
admin
Admin
  • Review due next week (questions?)
    • 3 main points + 1 observation/comment
    • ‘What we know about AIDS’ (Nattrass, 2010)
    • 1 page – max 500 words – don’t make me count!
  • First week of October – consultations about essay – I will post consultation times
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