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Economic and Development Problems in South Africa and Africa Session 9 – Primary Education in Southern Africa & how to think…. Aims for today. Hand in first draft of thesis ________________________________________

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Economic and Development Problems in South Africa and AfricaSession 9– Primary Education in Southern Africa& how to think…


Aims for today

  • Hand in first draft of thesis

    ________________________________________

  • Comparing South Africa with 3 neighbouring countries – cross national comparisons

  • Understanding sample selection bias using education

    • Important for test / life / thought !!

    • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


1) Comparing education quality in Southern Africa


Recap sa in regional context
RECAP - SA in regional context

WCA

LIM


Recap viva mzansi
RECAP - Viva Mzansi

  • Grade 6  13 years olds

  • Complete and utter disgrace – government failure on a national scale

  • Wholesale failure of the government to provide the most basic tool needed for mobility, or even dignified living.

40.2%

27.2%


Cross national comparisons
Cross-national comparisons?

  • Are cross-national comparisons valid?

    • Inter-national heterogeneity?

      • Population? Spending?

    • Sample Selection?

?

[1] 2006 data

[2] 2005 data

[3] 2004 data

[4] 2007 data

[5] 2007 data from (DBE, Macro Indicator Trends in Schooling: Summary report 2011 2011, 25) since it was not available in UNESCO (2010)

  • NER = The number of children of official primary school age (according to ISCED9726) who are enrolled in primary education

  • as a percentage of the total children of the official school age population


Enrolments
Enrolments

Spending 


Sample selection test
Sample Selection (TEST)

  • What is a sample?

    • An entity that is representative of a class; a specimen.

    •  A set of elements drawn from and analyzed to estimate the characteristics of a population

  • What is the purpose of sampling?

    • Censuses are expensive

    • We still want to make inferences about a population (economics / politics / science

  • What Does Sample Selection Bias Mean?‘A type of bias caused by choosing non-random data for statistical analysis. The bias exists due to a flaw in the sample selection process, where a subset of the data is systematically excluded (or included) due to a particular attribute. The exclusion of the subset can influence the statistical significance of the test, or produce distorted results.’

    • EXAMPLES?

      • Attrition bias / Survivor bias (stocks / child illness)

      • Voluntary bias (smoking survey)

      • Bowls is the most dangerous sport on earth

      • Survey – NIDS numeracy / LFP

      • Others?

    • Questions to ask:

      • “Is this representative of the population I’m interested in?

      • Is there any possible selection mechanism involved?





Exercise
Exercise

  • In groups of 3

    • Think of 1 example of sample selection bias that you have personally encountered.

      • {it doesn’t have to be from an actual sample that was drawn}

    • Think of 2 examples of sample selection bias that we have not mentioned yet


Admin
Admin

  • Review due next week (questions?)

    • 3 main points + 1 observation/comment

    • ‘What we know about AIDS’ (Nattrass, 2010)

    • 1 page – max 500 words – don’t make me count!

  • First week of October – consultations about essay – I will post consultation times



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