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Bacterial Infection of Cardiovascular system. By. Dr. Humodi A. Saeed Associate Prof. of Medical Microbiology College of Medical Laboratory Science Sudan University of Science and Technology E mail address: [email protected] Cardiovascular system (CVS). Cardiovascular system (CVS).

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Bacterial Infection of Cardiovascular system

By

Dr. Humodi A. Saeed

Associate Prof. of Medical Microbiology

College of Medical Laboratory Science

Sudan University of Science and Technology

E mail address: [email protected]



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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

What is Cardiovascular system?


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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

Definition

Cardiovascular system (circulatory system), defined as a group of organs that transport blood and the substances it carries to and from all parts of the body.



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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

Components

The cardiovascular (circulatory) system consists of :

1. The heart

2. Blood vessels.



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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

Functions

1. Circulates blood throughout the body.

2. Delivers nutrients and other essential materials to cells.

3. Removes waste products.


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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

Function

(It serves as the body's transportation system).



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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

Cardiovascular diseases

Disease of the heart and blood vessels.



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Bacterial Infection of CVS

1. Bacteraemia

  • Presence of organisms not permanent.

  • Organisms not multiplying.

  • Patient asymptomatic.

  • Important means of spread for other diseases.


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Causes of Bacteraemia

  • Group B streptococcus

  • Escherichia coli (and other enteric Gram negative bacilli)

  • Listeria monocytogenes

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Haemophilus influenzae

  • Staphylococcus aureus

  • Neisseria meningitides

  • Salmonella spp


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Causes of Bacteraemia (cont.)

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Group B streptococcus

  • Neisseria meningitides

  • Salmonella spp

  • Haemophilus influenzae

  • Listeria monocytogenes


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Causes of Bacteraemia (cont.)

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Haemophilus influenzae

  • Neisseria meningitides

  • Salmonella spp



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Cardiovascular system (CVS)

2. Septicaemia

Septicaemia is a potentially life-threatening infection in which large amounts of multiplying bacteria are present in the blood. It is commonly referred to as blood poisoning.


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Septicaemia

  • Organisms actively multiplying.

  • Patient acutely symptomatic.


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Causes

Septicaemia usually arises as a result of localised infection in the body. The primary site of infection may occur in the:

  • Respiratory system

  • Skin

  • The gastrointestinal system

  • Genitourinary system.

    Bacteria usually spill over from the primary infection site into the blood and are carried throughout the body thereby spreading infection to various systems of the body.


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Symptoms

  • Fevers

  • Chills

  • Rash


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Mortality

  • Very high even with prompt therapy.

  • Gram positive 10 – 20%

  • Gram negatuve 25 – 40%

  • Septic shock 40 – 90%



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Bacterial Infection of CVS

3. Endocarditis

Viridans Streptococci

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Staphylococcus aureus

CoN Staphylococci Stomatococcus species

Enterococcus species


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

3. Endocarditis (Cont.)

HACEK group

Bartonella species

Rickettsia burnetii

Brucella species

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Enterobacteriaceae

Ps. aeruginosa,

Corynebacterium sp. Propionibacterium sp.



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Bacterial Infection of CVS

4. Myocarditis

Cory.diphtheriae

Clostridium perfringens

group A Streptococcus Borrelia burgdorferi Neisseria meningitidis Staphylococcus aureus


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

4. Myocarditis (Cont.)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydia psittaci

Rickettsia rickettsii

Rickettsia tsutsugamushi



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Bacterial Infection of CVS

5. Pericarditis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Staphylococcus aureus

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


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Bacterial Infection of CVSLab. Diagnosis

Specimen

Blood


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Bacterial Infection of CVSLab. Diagnosis

Essential points

  • Multiple collections

    (3 in 24 hours)

  • Maximum volume

    (do not overfill!)

    3. Aseptic collection / handling technique is CRITICAL


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Bacterial Infection of CVS Lab. Diagnosis

Microscopy

Gram stain

To detect:

  • Gram positive

    2. Gram negative


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Bacterial Infection of CVS Lab. Diagnosis

Blood culture:

To isolate the causative agent (s).


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Bacterial Infection of CVS

Treatment

After performing sensitivity test.



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