Breast cancer
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Breast Cancer. Shirley Moncada Kelly Mentasti Ashlee Mehle Amber Isley. What is Breast Cancer?. Genetics and Breast Cancer. Genetic testing Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes Lifetime risk for women with mutation is 82% Breast cancer and men with gene mutations

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Breast cancer

Breast Cancer

  • Shirley Moncada

  • Kelly Mentasti

  • Ashlee Mehle

  • Amber Isley


What is breast cancer

What is Breast Cancer?


Genetics and breast cancer

Genetics and Breast Cancer

  • Genetic testing

  • Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

  • Lifetime risk for women with mutation is 82%

  • Breast cancer and men with gene mutations

  • Possible BRCA3 gene on C-13

  • TP53 mutations

  • HER-2 gene


Types of brest cancer

Types of Brest Cancer

  • Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    • Stage 0

  • Invasive Breast Cancer

    • Stage 1 thru Stage 4


Breast cancer stages

Breast Cancer Stages

  • 0 – noninvasive, most favorable

  • I– Less than ¾ of an inch, has not spread

  • II – small, has spread or large, has not spread

  • III– larger size (greater than 2 in) with lymph node involvement, some inflammatory

  • IV– tumor metastasized to another part of body, least favorable


Breast cancer stages1

Breast Cancer Stages

  • Stage 0

  • Stage 1


Symptoms include

Breast lump

Lump in auxiliary

Lump above collarbone

Breast discharge

Noticing new nipple inversion

Skin changes

Thickening of breast

Redness

Changes in texture and puckering

Symptoms Include:


Benign vs malignant

Benign

Benign cysts

Fibroadenomas

Fat Necrosis

Sclerosing Adenoma

Fibrocystic changes

Intraductal Papilloma

Injury

Hormones

Malignant

Carcinoma In Situ (non invasive)

Invasive cancer

Benign vs. Malignant


Non invasive

Non-Invasive

  • Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

  • Lobular Carcinoma In Situ

  • Paget’s Disease


Invasive

Invasive

  • Ductal Carcinoma

  • Lobular Carcinoma

  • Inflammatory Carcinoma


Treatment

Treatment

  • Hormone therapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Lumpectomy

  • Mastectomy

  • Post-mastectomy radiotherapy


Hormone therapy treatment

Hormone therapy is the manipulation of the body’s hormones by blocking them from binding to protein receptors on cancer cells.

Recommended for patients whose breast tumors contain hormone receptor protein.

Drugs/Strategies used in hormone therapy:

Tamoxifen

Letrozole

Ovarian ablation

Hormone therapytreatment


Hormone therapy as a form of prevention

Hormone Therapy as a form of prevention

  • Tamoxifen

  • Raloxifene

    • Structure of raloxifene


Question

Question

  • What type of inhibition is tamoxifen?

    • Non-competitive

    • Allosteric

    • Competitive

    • Super

    • Spider-man


Overview of how hormone therapy works

Overview of how hormone therapy works

  • Tamoxifen, the most researched form of hormone therapy

    • An antiestrogen

    • Binds to estrogen receptor sites on target cells


Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

  • Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment that is intended to kill cancer cells in the body.

  • Recommended for pre and post menopausal women up to age 70 years with node-positive and node-negative disease.

  • Administered as an injection, tablet, or as a cream

  • Dosages of 4-6 courses of treatment, 3-6 months in length provide optimal benefit.


Lumpectomy vs mastectomy treatment

A lumpectomy is the removal of the tumor from the breast.

A mastectomy is the removal of the entire breast in which the tumor is located.

Lumpectomy vs Mastectomytreatment


Post mastectomy radiotherapy

Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy

  • Is recommended for patients with four or more positive lymph nodes or an advanced primary tumor

  • Must be coordinated with polychemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy

  • Must be administered within the first 6 months of the mastectomy treatment


Prophylactic mastectomy

Prophylactic Mastectomy

  • Mastectomy as a form of prevention

  • Has been found in preliminary study to decrease lifetime risk by 90% in women who are high risk


Risk factors

Risk Factors

  • Genetics

  • Age

  • Environment

  • Lifestyle


Breast cancer

Age

  • Incidence of breast cancer doubles for women every ten years up until menopause

  • Length of high production of estrogen (between menarche and menopause) has effects on risk of breast cancer

    • Women who begin menstruating at an early age or have menopause at a late age are at a greater risk

    • Late age at first birth and nulliparity also increase the risk of breast cancer substantially


Environment

Environment

  • Environment is more important than genetic factors in determining the risk of breast cancer

  • Relationship between environment and lifestyle


Age standardized incidence of breast cancer per 100 000

Age-Standardized Incidence of breast cancer per 100,000


Statistics

Statistics

  • Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer in the United States is 12.5% for women

  • Breast cancer comprises 32% of female cancers in the US, and less than 2% for males

  • Mortality in breast cancer is 19% in the United States, and is greatly reduced by regular breast self-exams and mammograms


Statistics1

Statistics


Some facts

Some Facts

  • About 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year.

  • One in seven women will develop breast cancer.

  • 1,000 men will develop breast cancer this year.


Some facts1

Some facts

  • If someone in your immediate family has had breast cancer you should start at age 30.

  • Mammograms should be taken yearly starting at age 40 and up.


Useful web site

Useful Web site

  • Y-me

    www.y-me.org

  • National Cancer Institute

    www.nci.nih.gov

  • National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organization

    www.nabco.org


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