twinning water quality modelling in latvia
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Twinning water quality modelling in Latvia. Helene Ejhed 2007-04-25. Models basics choice. Model purpose Model components Resolution Data requirements Time and cost Test a couple of models. Models choice. Monitoring pressure state impact. Modeling pressure state impact response.

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models basics choice
Models basics choice
  • Model purpose
  • Model components
  • Resolution
  • Data requirements
  • Time and cost
  • Test a couple of models
models choice
Models choice











freeware vs commercial aspects
Freeware vs commercial -aspects
  • Access
  • Support
  • Developments
  • Modules - Package
  • Cost
identified concerns
Identified concerns
  • Eutrophication
  • Dangerous substances
hydrology models
Hydrology models
  • The HBV model (Bergström, 1976 and 1995; Lindström et al., 1997)
    • is a conceptual, continuos, dynamic and distributed rainfall-runoff model. It provides daily values of spatial precipitation, snow accumulation and melt, soil moisture, groundwater level, and finally,runoff from every sub-basin, and routing through rivers and lakes. The model is calibrated and validated against observed time-series.
    • included in TRK
    • widely used
  • SCS (Soil Concervation Service) model
    • calculates using flow transport factors dependent on landuse and soil type which gives a "Curve number". Snow routine and monitored baseflow can be added. Daily data.
    • included in SWAT and others for surface runoff
    • simple model
models of eutrophication
Models of Eutrophication
  • Purpose – to present good description of source apportionment (pressure) with resonable resolution to be able to give national overview of programmes of measures.
  • Complexity of models
    • Data requirements
    • User requirements
    • Parameter sensitivity

complex physical based model

models systems eutrophication
Models systems Eutrophication
  • ex. TRK used on national scale in Sweden

– system of models in different modules:

    • HBV hydrology
    • SOILNDB N agricultural release
    • ICECREAM P agricultural release
    • HBV-NP retention
    • Point source calculations
    • Source apportionment system
  • ex. SWAT or INCA or Fyriså model or... - model package
  • ex. MIKESHE or CE-W2_QUAL - model package
eutrophication model systems details
EutrophicationModel systems - details
  • CE-QUAL-W2 is a two-dimensional water quality and hydrodynamic code
  • Both have a detailed grid description of the catchment.
  • Detailed description of hydrology and retention in streams and lakes
eutrophication model systems trk n and p
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and P
  • Semidistributed description of the subcatchment
  • Detailed description of the agricultural process
  • Simple description of other diffuse sources
  • Detailed description of point sources on subcatchment
  • Description of hydrology
  • Decsription of retention
  • Applied on national scale in Sweden
eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements
  • General TRK:
    • Land cover data, soil texture data, Soil USDA class data, crop area, phosphorus soil data, livestock density, runoff data from HBV, N deposition, leaching data from SOILNDB for arable land and leaching average data from long-term measurements regarding other land-use, point source position and discharge data, percentage of separate sewer for paved surfaces, rural household position and discharge, retention in %from HBV-N. Data are compiled at subcatchment level.
    • meteorological data, average soil organic matter, crop management and yield, N fertilisation and manuring, N fixation rates in ley, deposition rates, non-existent crop sequence combinations.
eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements continued
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued
  • HBV: subbasin division and coupling, altitude distribution, time-series of precipitation and temperature (time-series of observed water discharge at some site).
  • HBV-NP: results from HBV,SOILNDB and ICECREAMDB, crop and soil distribution, leaching concentrations from other land use, location and emissions from point sources and rural households, lake depths and atmospheric N deposition (time-series of observed riverine N concentrations in some site).
eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements continued1
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued
  • ICECREAM – P agricultural model
  • requires phosphorous in soil,
eutrophication model systems swat
EutrophicationModel systems –SWAT
  • SWAT is a continuous time model that operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The objective of such a model is to predict the long-term impacts in large basins of management and also timing of agricultural practices within a year (i.e., crop rotations, planting and harvest dates, irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates and timing).
  • Model system package
  • Detailed description of the landuse
  • Data requirement heavy
  • User requirement heavy
eutrophication model systems inca p
EutrophicationModel systems –INCA-P
  • for assessing the effects of multiple sources of phosphorus on the water quality and aquatic ecology in heterogeneous river systems. The Integrated catchments model for Phosphorus (INCA-P) is a process-based, mass balance model that simulates the phosphorus dynamics in both the plant/soil system and the stream.
  • model system package
eutrophication model tests
EutrophicationModel tests
  • To be performed in Jelgava by Agricultural university in Latvia using Fyriså model, and SOILNDB and ICECREAM 2007 – low financing
  • Comparison of HBV-NP, Fyriså model, conceptual models with process based models in lake Vänern in Sweden published in 2004 – similar performance in model
  • Fyriså model based on monthly based data.
  • Communicate with the above project
  • Start by applying the TRK and SWAT
  • Then test MIKESHE
  • Data requirements will decide usefulness
dangerous substances models and processes
Dangerous substancesModels and processes
  • Desiscion support system –
  • Recommendation of process
  • Chemical fate modeling – fugacity approach
  • Screening monitoring
  • MFA (Material Flow analysis) and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis)
  • QSAR modeling – for new substances

Toxic pressure

Occurrence and distribution of chemicals in different media


Transport Processes and the use of Models

dangerous substances models and processes qsar
Dangerous substancesModels and processes - QSAR
  • QSAR model is a relation between chemical structure and a property of the chemical compound. The features of a chemical structure are captured by so called chemical descriptors that can be of a number of different types.