Twinning water quality modelling in latvia
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Twinning water quality modelling in Latvia. Helene Ejhed 2007-04-25. Models basics choice. Model purpose Model components Resolution Data requirements Time and cost Test a couple of models. Models choice. Monitoring pressure state impact. Modeling pressure state impact response.

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Twinning water quality modelling in Latvia

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Twinning water quality modelling in Latvia

Helene Ejhed 2007-04-25


Models basics choice

  • Model purpose

  • Model components

  • Resolution

  • Data requirements

  • Time and cost

  • Test a couple of models


Models choice

Monitoring

pressure

state

impact

Modeling

pressure

state

impact

response

DPSIR


Freeware vs commercial -aspects

  • Access

  • Support

  • Developments

  • Modules - Package

  • Cost


Identified concerns

  • Eutrophication

  • Dangerous substances


Hydrology models

  • The HBV model (Bergström, 1976 and 1995; Lindström et al., 1997)

    • is a conceptual, continuos, dynamic and distributed rainfall-runoff model. It provides daily values of spatial precipitation, snow accumulation and melt, soil moisture, groundwater level, and finally,runoff from every sub-basin, and routing through rivers and lakes. The model is calibrated and validated against observed time-series.

    • included in TRK

    • widely used

  • SCS (Soil Concervation Service) model

    • calculates using flow transport factors dependent on landuse and soil type which gives a "Curve number". Snow routine and monitored baseflow can be added. Daily data.

    • included in SWAT and others for surface runoff

    • simple model


Models of Eutrophication

  • Purpose – to present good description of source apportionment (pressure) with resonable resolution to be able to give national overview of programmes of measures.

  • Complexity of models

    • Data requirements

    • User requirements

    • Parameter sensitivity

complex physical based model


Models systems Eutrophication

  • ex. TRK used on national scale in Sweden

    – system of models in different modules:

    • HBV hydrology

    • SOILNDB N agricultural release

    • ICECREAM P agricultural release

    • HBV-NP retention

    • Point source calculations

    • Source apportionment system

  • ex. SWAT or INCA or Fyriså model or... - model package

  • ex. MIKESHE or CE-W2_QUAL - model package


EutrophicationModel systems - details

  • CE-QUAL-W2 is a two-dimensional water quality and hydrodynamic code

  • MIKESHE

  • Both have a detailed grid description of the catchment.

  • Detailed description of hydrology and retention in streams and lakes


EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and P

  • Semidistributed description of the subcatchment

  • Detailed description of the agricultural process

  • Simple description of other diffuse sources

  • Detailed description of point sources on subcatchment

  • Description of hydrology

  • Decsription of retention

  • Applied on national scale in Sweden


EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements

  • General TRK:

    • Land cover data, soil texture data, Soil USDA class data, crop area, phosphorus soil data, livestock density, runoff data from HBV, N deposition, leaching data from SOILNDB for arable land and leaching average data from long-term measurements regarding other land-use, point source position and discharge data, percentage of separate sewer for paved surfaces, rural household position and discharge, retention in %from HBV-N. Data are compiled at subcatchment level.

  • SOILNDB:

    • meteorological data, average soil organic matter, crop management and yield, N fertilisation and manuring, N fixation rates in ley, deposition rates, non-existent crop sequence combinations.


EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued

  • HBV: subbasin division and coupling, altitude distribution, time-series of precipitation and temperature (time-series of observed water discharge at some site).

  • HBV-NP: results from HBV,SOILNDB and ICECREAMDB, crop and soil distribution, leaching concentrations from other land use, location and emissions from point sources and rural households, lake depths and atmospheric N deposition (time-series of observed riverine N concentrations in some site).


EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued

  • ICECREAM – P agricultural model

  • requires phosphorous in soil,


EutrophicationModel systems –SWAT

  • SWAT is a continuous time model that operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The objective of such a model is to predict the long-term impacts in large basins of management and also timing of agricultural practices within a year (i.e., crop rotations, planting and harvest dates, irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates and timing).

  • Model system package

  • Detailed description of the landuse

  • Data requirement heavy

  • User requirement heavy


EutrophicationModel systems –INCA-P

  • for assessing the effects of multiple sources of phosphorus on the water quality and aquatic ecology in heterogeneous river systems. The Integrated catchments model for Phosphorus (INCA-P) is a process-based, mass balance model that simulates the phosphorus dynamics in both the plant/soil system and the stream.

  • model system package


EutrophicationModel - INCA


EutrophicationModel tests

  • To be performed in Jelgava by Agricultural university in Latvia using Fyriså model, and SOILNDB and ICECREAM 2007 – low financing

  • Comparison of HBV-NP, Fyriså model, conceptual models with process based models in lake Vänern in Sweden published in 2004 – similar performance in model

  • Fyriså model based on monthly based data.

  • Communicate with the above project

  • Start by applying the TRK and SWAT

  • Then test MIKESHE

  • Data requirements will decide usefulness


Dangerous substancesModels and processes

  • Desiscion support system – SOCOPSE.se

  • Recommendation of process

  • Chemical fate modeling – fugacity approach

  • Screening monitoring

  • MFA (Material Flow analysis) and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis)

  • QSAR modeling – for new substances


Toxic pressure

Occurrence and distribution of chemicals in different media

Biota

Transport Processes and the use of Models


Dangerous substancesModels and processes - QSAR

  • QSAR model is a relation between chemical structure and a property of the chemical compound. The features of a chemical structure are captured by so called chemical descriptors that can be of a number of different types.


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