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HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0. Silurian. Devonian. Carboniferous . Permian . Triassic . Jurassic . Cretaceous . Entognatha. Archaeognatha. Hexapoda.

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HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants)

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Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

HYMENOPTERA

(wasps, bees, ants)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Hexapoda

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Apterygotes

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Paleoptera

Lepidoptera

Hemimetabolous

Holometabolous


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

So far in classification

Exopterygota

Head with gula

Neuropteroid Orders

mandibulate

Hymenoptera

Diptera

2

Neoptera

Wings

larvae without legs

4

Mecoptera

Head without gula

Siphonaptera

No wings

Mecopteroid orders

rostrate

- Lepidoptera

Wings with scales

larvae with legs

- Trichoptera

Wings with hairs


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Beetle head - Ventral

Wasp head - Ventral

No gula

Gula


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hexapod Orders

Hymenoptera

Hymen - membrane, ptera - wing

Number of Species

125,000 (60 – 90% undescribed)

Common names

Wasps, bees, ants

Typical habitats

Diverse

Distinguishing characteristics

-hamulae for wing coupling

-ovipositor modified as stinger

-constricted ‘waist’

-aposematic colouration

Other features


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Lepidoptera


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Combination of ancestral and derived traits:

Ancestral

Derived

1. Mandibulate mouthparts

1. Wing coupling via hamuli

2. Generalized ovipositor

2. Haploid-diploid sex determination


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Historical Hymenoptera

Egyptian tomb

Neolithic cave painting


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Importance

Pollination


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Importance

Biological control - Parasitoids


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Parasitioids

Differences from parasites:

1. Single host organism

2. Host will eventually die (after the lifespan of the parasitoid)

3. Can be larvaphagous or oophagous


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

1) Mouthparts (ancestral feature)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

2) Wing coupling (derived feature)

hamulae


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications (derived feature)

Narrow “waist”


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

First abdominal segment (propodeum)

3) Abdominal modifications


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Tergum 9

gonoplac

first gonapophysis (lancet)

second gonapophysis (stylet)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

second gonapophysis (stylet)

first gonapophysis (lancet)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Venom Glands

Venom gland

Venom reservoir

Dufour’s gland


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

4) Social structure

Workers

Males

(drones)

Queen


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

4) Social structure

Comparison with Isoptera

Isoptera

Hymenoptera

Worker is adult

Worker is nymph

Drone is N

Whole colony is 2N

Drone is for fertilization only

King is part of colony

No specialized worker classes

Soldier is specialized worker


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Distinguishing Features

5) Haplodiploid sex determination

Most animals

Hymenoptera

x

x

2N

N

2N

2N

Worker/Sisters – related by 75%

Siblings – related by 50%


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’

Hymenopteran fossils (Xyelidae) Early Cretaceous


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Sawfly Damage


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

2) Apocrita

- waist - includes most Hymenoptera

Parasitica (piercing forms)

Aculeata (stinging forms)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae

Carpenter ant

Army ants

Leafcutter ants


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Carpenter ant damage


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

2) Apoidea - bees

Bumblebee

Honey bee

Sweat bee


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Yellowjacket

Paperwasp

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Tarantula hawk - Pepsis


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Yellowjacket

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Paperwasp (Polistes)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - digger wasps, mud daubers, potters

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - nests

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

5) Chalcidoidea


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea

Parasitoids used in biological control

Multiple switches to endoparasitoidism

Ancestral families

-ectoparasitoids on wood boring insects

(beetles, caterpillars, wood wasps)


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Manipulation of host’s physiology

Hymenoepimecis

Host – spider - Plesiometa


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Manipulation of host’s physiology

Wasp temporarily parasitizes the spider and lays egg

Wasp larva feeds on spider

Web is designed to support wasp cocoon

Near end of development – causes spider to spin different web


Hymenoptera wasps bees ants

Manipulation of host’s physiology

Endoparasitoids

-must overcome host’s immune system

Poly-DNA-virus

-packaged into nucleocapsids in wasp’s ovaries

Poly-DNA-virus

- integrated into wasp’s chromosomal DNA & transmitted to offspring

Injected into host

Virus expresses genes that compromise host’s immune reaction


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