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HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0. Silurian. Devonian. Carboniferous . Permian . Triassic . Jurassic . Cretaceous . Entognatha. Archaeognatha. Hexapoda.

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HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants)

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HYMENOPTERA

(wasps, bees, ants)


500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Hexapoda

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Apterygotes

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Paleoptera

Lepidoptera

Hemimetabolous

Holometabolous


So far in classification

Exopterygota

Head with gula

Neuropteroid Orders

mandibulate

Hymenoptera

Diptera

2

Neoptera

Wings

larvae without legs

4

Mecoptera

Head without gula

Siphonaptera

No wings

Mecopteroid orders

rostrate

- Lepidoptera

Wings with scales

larvae with legs

- Trichoptera

Wings with hairs


Beetle head - Ventral

Wasp head - Ventral

No gula

Gula


Hexapod Orders

Hymenoptera

Hymen - membrane, ptera - wing

Number of Species

125,000 (60 – 90% undescribed)

Common names

Wasps, bees, ants

Typical habitats

Diverse

Distinguishing characteristics

-hamulae for wing coupling

-ovipositor modified as stinger

-constricted ‘waist’

-aposematic colouration

Other features


500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Lepidoptera


Combination of ancestral and derived traits:

Ancestral

Derived

1. Mandibulate mouthparts

1. Wing coupling via hamuli

2. Generalized ovipositor

2. Haploid-diploid sex determination


Historical Hymenoptera

Egyptian tomb

Neolithic cave painting


Importance

Pollination


Importance

Biological control - Parasitoids


Parasitioids

Differences from parasites:

1. Single host organism

2. Host will eventually die (after the lifespan of the parasitoid)

3. Can be larvaphagous or oophagous


Distinguishing Features

1) Mouthparts (ancestral feature)


Distinguishing Features

2) Wing coupling (derived feature)

hamulae


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications (derived feature)

Narrow “waist”


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features

First abdominal segment (propodeum)

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Tergum 9

gonoplac

first gonapophysis (lancet)

second gonapophysis (stylet)


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

second gonapophysis (stylet)

first gonapophysis (lancet)


Distinguishing Features

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Venom Glands

Venom gland

Venom reservoir

Dufour’s gland


Distinguishing Features

4) Social structure

Workers

Males

(drones)

Queen


Distinguishing Features

4) Social structure

Comparison with Isoptera

Isoptera

Hymenoptera

Worker is adult

Worker is nymph

Drone is N

Whole colony is 2N

Drone is for fertilization only

King is part of colony

No specialized worker classes

Soldier is specialized worker


Distinguishing Features

5) Haplodiploid sex determination

Most animals

Hymenoptera

x

x

2N

N

2N

2N

Worker/Sisters – related by 75%

Siblings – related by 50%


Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’

Hymenopteran fossils (Xyelidae) Early Cretaceous


Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’


Sawfly Damage


Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification

2 Suborders

2) Apocrita

- waist - includes most Hymenoptera

Parasitica (piercing forms)

Aculeata (stinging forms)


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae

Carpenter ant

Army ants

Leafcutter ants


Carpenter ant damage


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

2) Apoidea - bees

Bumblebee

Honey bee

Sweat bee


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Yellowjacket

Paperwasp

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Tarantula hawk - Pepsis


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Yellowjacket

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Paperwasp (Polistes)


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - digger wasps, mud daubers, potters

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - nests

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera - Classification

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

5) Chalcidoidea


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea


Hymenoptera - Classification

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea

Parasitoids used in biological control

Multiple switches to endoparasitoidism

Ancestral families

-ectoparasitoids on wood boring insects

(beetles, caterpillars, wood wasps)


Manipulation of host’s physiology

Hymenoepimecis

Host – spider - Plesiometa


Manipulation of host’s physiology

Wasp temporarily parasitizes the spider and lays egg

Wasp larva feeds on spider

Web is designed to support wasp cocoon

Near end of development – causes spider to spin different web


Manipulation of host’s physiology

Endoparasitoids

-must overcome host’s immune system

Poly-DNA-virus

-packaged into nucleocapsids in wasp’s ovaries

Poly-DNA-virus

- integrated into wasp’s chromosomal DNA & transmitted to offspring

Injected into host

Virus expresses genes that compromise host’s immune reaction


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