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HYMENOPTERA (wasps, bees, ants). 500 400 300 200 100 0. Silurian. Devonian. Carboniferous . Permian . Triassic . Jurassic . Cretaceous . Entognatha. Archaeognatha. Hexapoda.

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HYMENOPTERA

(wasps, bees, ants)


500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Hexapoda

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Apterygotes

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Paleoptera

Lepidoptera

Hemimetabolous

Holometabolous


So far in classification 200 100 0

Exopterygota

Head with gula

Neuropteroid Orders

mandibulate

Hymenoptera

Diptera

2

Neoptera

Wings

larvae without legs

4

Mecoptera

Head without gula

Siphonaptera

No wings

Mecopteroid orders

rostrate

- Lepidoptera

Wings with scales

larvae with legs

- Trichoptera

Wings with hairs


Beetle head - Ventral 200 100 0

Wasp head - Ventral

No gula

Gula


Hexapod Orders 200 100 0

Hymenoptera

Hymen - membrane, ptera - wing

Number of Species

125,000 (60 – 90% undescribed)

Common names

Wasps, bees, ants

Typical habitats

Diverse

Distinguishing characteristics

-hamulae for wing coupling

-ovipositor modified as stinger

-constricted ‘waist’

-aposematic colouration

Other features


500 400 300 200 100 0

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

cretaceous

Entognatha

Archaeognatha

Zygentoma

Ephemeroptera

Insecta

Odonata

Plecoptera

Embiodea

Pterygota

Zoraptera

Dermaptera

Grylloblattodea

?

Mantophasmatodea

Orthoptera

Phasmatodea

Blattaria

Isoptera

Mantodea

Neoptera

Psocoptera

Phthiraptera

Thysanoptera

Hemiptera

Coleoptera

Rhaphidioptera

Megaloptera

Neuroptera

Hymenoptera

Holometabola

Mecoptera

Siphonaptera

Diptera

Strepsiptera

Trichoptera

Lepidoptera


Combination of ancestral and derived traits: 200 100 0

Ancestral

Derived

1. Mandibulate mouthparts

1. Wing coupling via hamuli

2. Generalized ovipositor

2. Haploid-diploid sex determination


Historical Hymenoptera 200 100 0

Egyptian tomb

Neolithic cave painting


Importance 200 100 0

Pollination


Importance 200 100 0

Biological control - Parasitoids


Parasitioids 200 100 0

Differences from parasites:

1. Single host organism

2. Host will eventually die (after the lifespan of the parasitoid)

3. Can be larvaphagous or oophagous


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

1) Mouthparts (ancestral feature)


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

2) Wing coupling (derived feature)

hamulae


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications (derived feature)

Narrow “waist”


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

First abdominal segment (propodeum)

3) Abdominal modifications


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Tergum 9

gonoplac

first gonapophysis (lancet)

second gonapophysis (stylet)


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

second gonapophysis (stylet)

first gonapophysis (lancet)


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

3) Abdominal modifications - Stingers

Venom Glands

Venom gland

Venom reservoir

Dufour’s gland


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

4) Social structure

Workers

Males

(drones)

Queen


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

4) Social structure

Comparison with Isoptera

Isoptera

Hymenoptera

Worker is adult

Worker is nymph

Drone is N

Whole colony is 2N

Drone is for fertilization only

King is part of colony

No specialized worker classes

Soldier is specialized worker


Distinguishing Features 200 100 0

5) Haplodiploid sex determination

Most animals

Hymenoptera

x

x

2N

N

2N

2N

Worker/Sisters – related by 75%

Siblings – related by 50%


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’

Hymenopteran fossils (Xyelidae) Early Cretaceous


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

2 Suborders

1) Symphyta (sawflies)

- no ‘waist’


Sawfly Damage 200 100 0


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

2 Suborders

2) Apocrita

- waist - includes most Hymenoptera

Parasitica (piercing forms)

Aculeata (stinging forms)


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

1) Formicoidea - ants

Formicidae

Carpenter ant

Army ants

Leafcutter ants



Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

2) Apoidea - bees

Bumblebee

Honey bee

Sweat bee


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Yellowjacket

Paperwasp

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - wasps, hornets, yellowjackets

Tarantula hawk - Pepsis


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Yellowjacket

Baldfaced Hornet


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

3) Vespoidea - Nests

Paperwasp (Polistes)


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - digger wasps, mud daubers, potters

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies

4) Sphecoidea - nests

Digger wasp

Potter wasp

Mud dauber wasp


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Vespoidea

Symphyta

Sphecoidea

Formicoidea

Ichneumonoidea

Apoidea

Chalcidoidea

Aculeata

Parasitica

Free living

Parasitoids

Apocrita

No ‘waist’

‘waist’

Hymenoptera


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies - Parasitica

5) Chalcidoidea


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea


Hymenoptera - Classification 200 100 0

Superfamilies - Parasitica

Ichneumonoidea

Parasitoids used in biological control

Multiple switches to endoparasitoidism

Ancestral families

-ectoparasitoids on wood boring insects

(beetles, caterpillars, wood wasps)


Manipulation of host 200 100 0’s physiology

Hymenoepimecis

Host – spider - Plesiometa


Manipulation of host 200 100 0’s physiology

Wasp temporarily parasitizes the spider and lays egg

Wasp larva feeds on spider

Web is designed to support wasp cocoon

Near end of development – causes spider to spin different web


Manipulation of host 200 100 0’s physiology

Endoparasitoids

-must overcome host’s immune system

Poly-DNA-virus

-packaged into nucleocapsids in wasp’s ovaries

Poly-DNA-virus

- integrated into wasp’s chromosomal DNA & transmitted to offspring

Injected into host

Virus expresses genes that compromise host’s immune reaction


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