Ap chemistry kinetics
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

AP chemistry Kinetics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 206 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

AP chemistry Kinetics. Things to know……. Things to remember….. Rate depends on temperature Temp is the avg. KE Order depends on rxn mechanism Rate is determined by the slow step Temp affects k Increase temp 10oC, rate doubles

Download Presentation

AP chemistry Kinetics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ap chemistry kinetics

AP chemistry Kinetics

Things to know……


Things to remember

Things to remember….

  • Rate depends on temperature

    • Temp is the avg. KE

  • Order depends on rxn mechanism

    • Rate is determined by the slow step

  • Temp affects k

    • Increase temp 10oC, rate doubles

  • Rxns occur when collisions have sufficient Ea and correct orientation

  • Factors that can affect rate:

    • Nature of reactants, surface area, concentration, temp, catalyst, pressure


Outline kinetics

Outline: Kinetics


Reaction rates

Reaction Rates

C4H9Cl(aq) + H2O(l) C4H9OH(aq) + HCl(aq)

  • A plot of concentration vs. time for this reaction yields a curve like this.

  • The slope of a line tangent to the curve at any point is the instantaneous rate at that time.


Reaction rates1

Reaction Rates

C4H9Cl(aq) + H2O(l) C4H9OH(aq) + HCl(aq)

  • The reaction slows down with time because the concentration of the reactants decreases.


Reaction rates and stoichiometry

Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry

  • What if the ratio is not 1:1?

H2(g) + I2(g)  2 HI(g)

  • Only 1/2 HI is made for each H2 used.


Ap chemistry kinetics

  • 3. 2 A(g) + B(g) <===> 2 C(g)

  • When the concentration of substance B in the reaction above is doubled, all other factors being held constant, it is found that the rate of the reaction remains unchanged. The most probable explanation for this observation is that

  • (A) the order of the reaction with respect to substance B is 1(B) substance B is not involved in any of the steps in the mechanism of the reaction(C) substance B is not involved in the rate-determining step of the mechanism, but is involved in subsequent steps(D) substance B is probably a catalyst, and as such, its effect on the rate of the reaction does not depend on its concentration(E) the reactant with the smallest coefficient in the balanced equation generally has little or no effect on the rate of the reaction


Ap chemistry kinetics

  • Step 1) N2H2O2 <===> N2HO2¯ + H+ fast equilibrium

  • Step 2) N2HO2¯ ---> N2O + OH¯ (slow)

  • Step 3) H+ + OH¯ ---> H2O (fast)

  • 4. Nitramide, N2H2O2, decomposes slowly in aqueous solution. This decomposition is believed to occur according to the reaction mechanism above. The rate law for the decomposition of nitramide that is consistent with this mechanism is given by which of the following?

  • (A) Rate = k [N2H2O2](B) Rate = k [N2H2O2] [H+](C) Rate = (k [N2H2O2]) / [H+](D) Rate = (k [N2H2O2]) / [N2HO2¯](E) Rate = k [N2H2O2] [OH¯]


Rate laws

Rate Laws

  • A rate law shows the relationship between the reaction rate and the concentrations of reactants.

    • For gas-phase reactants use PA instead of [A].

  • k is a constant that has a specific value for each reaction.

  • The value of k is determined experimentally.

    “Constant” is relative here-

    k is unique for each rxn

    k changes with T (section 14.5)


First order processes

First-Order Processes

  • When ln P is plotted as a function of time, a straight line results.

    • The process is first-order.

    • k is the negative slope: 5.1  10-5 s-1.


Determining rxn order

Determining rxn order

Graphing ln [NO2] vs.t yields:

  • The plot is not a straight line, so the process is not first-order in [A].

Does not fit:


Second order processes

Second-Order Processes

A graph of 1/[NO2] vs. t gives this plot.

  • This is a straight line. Therefore, the process is second-order in [NO2].


Second order processes1

Second-Order Processes

A graph of 1/[NO2] vs. t gives this plot.

  • This is a straight line. Therefore, the process is second-order in [NO2].


Ap chemistry kinetics

10. The graph above shows the results of a study of the reaction of X with a large excess of Y to yield Z. The concentrations of X and Y were measured over a period of time. According to the results, which of the following can be concluded about the rate of law for the reaction under the conditions studied?

A) It is zero order in [X].B) It is first order in [X].C) It is second order in [X].D) It is the first order in [Y].E) The overall order of the reaction is 2.


Ap chemistry kinetics

The initial-rate data in the table above were obtained for the reaction represented below. What is the experimental rate la for the reaction?

(A) rate = k[NO] [O2](B) rate = k[NO] [O2]2(C) rate = k[NO]2 [O2](D) rate = k[NO]2 [O2]2(E) rate = k[NO] / [O2]


Half life

Half-Life

  • Half-life is defined as the time required for one-half of a reactant to react.

  • Because [A] at t1/2 is one-half of the original [A],

    [A]t = 0.5 [A]0.


Half life1

Half-Life

For a first-order process, set [A]t=0.5 [A]0 in integrated rate equation:

NOTE: For a first-order process, the half-life does not depend on [A]0.


Half life 2nd order

Half-Life- 2nd order

For a second-order process, set

[A]t=0.5 [A]0 in 2nd order equation.


Outline kinetics1

Outline: Kinetics


What is the order of the rxn

What is the order of the rxn?


Potential energy diagram

Potential energy diagram


Arrhenius equation

Arrhenius equation

  • KE converts to PE during collisions to break bonds.

  • The transition state (aka activated complex) is the unstable intermediate that forms at the peak of the PE diagram.

  • Increase Ae, k decreases, and therefore rate decreases.

  • When temp doubles, all particles speed up (way more than double); therefore, the relationship is not linear, but rather exponential.


Arrhenius equation1

Arrhenius equation

  • When to use it? When given k and time or asked to solve for Ea.

  • Plot ln k vs 1/T = linear graph

  • Slope of the line = -Ea/R\

  • Therefore, Ea = -R x slope

  • R = 8.31 J/K mol


  • Login