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THE PASSIVE. UNIT 19. Passive vs Active Sentence. The president asked the employees to speak English. (active) The employees were asked to speak English. (passive) ***A passive sentence and an active sentence have similar meanings, ***but the focus of the sentence is different.

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The passive

THE PASSIVE

UNIT 19


Passive vs active sentence
Passive vs Active Sentence

  • The president asked the employees to speak English. (active)

  • The employees were asked to speak English. (passive)

    ***A passive sentence and an active sentence have similar meanings,

    ***but the focus of the sentence is different.

    ***In the PASSIVE sentence, the focus in on the action, the person, or the thing receiving the action.


In active sentences the agent the doer of the action is in the subject position
In ACTIVE sentences, the agent (the doer of the action) is in the subject position

People spoke English at the meeting. (active)

Agent

Object

English was spoken by people at the meeting

Passive/

object

agent


The agent not always necessary
The agent not always necessary in the subject position

  • English was spoken at the meeting. (We assume people were doing the speaking.)

  • ***Use the by + agent phrase is the agent is important or if the meaning of the sentence would be unclear without it.

    The internet is dominated by English.

    The Internet is dominated. (By who or what?)



Transitive vs intransitive
Transitive Perfect Progressive are not common.vs Intransitive

  • Transitive verbs are the ones that take an object and they can be used in the passive.

  • Someone saw her at the conference.(Active)

  • She was seen at the conference.(passive)

  • Intransitive verbs are the ones that do not take an object and they cannot be used in the passive.

  • I feel asleep. (Only active)


TRANSITIVE Perfect Progressive are not common.

INTRANSITIVE

Include, appear, arrive, come, die, fall, go, happen, live, look, occur, sit, smile, stay, wait, walk

***Born is the past form of bear. Born is used almost exclusively in the passive.

I was born in a small town.

  • Call, concern, do, expect, find, give know, leave, lose, make, put, see, take, use


Passive forms with direct and indirect object
Passive Forms with Direct and Indirect Object Perfect Progressive are not common.

  • Some verbs, such as give, offer, show, and tell can have two objects: a direct and indirect objects.

  • The team gave the manager the report.

    indirect direct obj

  • The manager was given the report by the team.

  • The report was given to the manager by the team.


Reasons for using the passive
Reasons for using the passive Perfect Progressive are not common.

***Describe a process or a result.

First, the information was studied. Then recommendations were made. Therefore, English was made the official language of the company in 2010.

***Use passive when you don’t know who performed the action.

The report was poorly written.

***Use it to report news events.

Recommendations for the teaching of languages were published today.


Passive 2
PASSIVE 2 Perfect Progressive are not common.


Get passive
GET PASSIVE Perfect Progressive are not common.

  • For get passive, use GET + V3

  • The storm destroyed the crops(Active)

  • The crops got destroyed(Passive)

  • For negative, use don’t/doesn’t get + V3

    • The crops don’t get destroyed.

    • The crops didn’t get destroyed.

  • For question;

  • Do the crops get destroyed?

  • Did the crops get destroyed?


  • Using get passive
    Using get passive Perfect Progressive are not common.

    • We use get passive to talk about negative situations or situations we think are beyond our control.

    • Some food companies are getting fined for using unsafe equipment.

    • She got arrested and charged with murder.

    • The get passive is more common in speaking.


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