CS 4700: Foundations of Artificial Intelligence. Carla P. Gomes [email protected] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/Courses/cs4700/2008fa/ Module: Introduction (Reading R&N: Chapter 1). Overview of this Lecture. Course Administration What is Artificial Intelligence?
Lectures: Monday, Wednesday, Friday 1:115 – 12:05
Location: Phillips Hall, room 101
Lecturer: Prof. Gomes
Office: 5133 Upson Hall
Phone: 255 9189
Email: [email protected]
Administrative Assistant: Kelly Duby
Kelly Duby <[email protected]>
4105 Upson Hall, 255-0980
Head Teaching Assistants
Yunsong Guo guoys @cs.cornell.edu
Anton Morozov amoroz @cs.cornell.edu
Clayton Chang cc843 @cornell.edu
Sean Sullivan sps27 @cornell.edu
Fridays: 1:15p.m – 2:15 p.m. (starting next week)
In 1936, Alan Turing, a British mathematician, showed that there exists a relatively simple universal computing device that can perform any computational process.
Computers use such a universal model.
Turing also showed the limits of computation – some problems cannot be computed even with the most powerful computer and even with unlimited amount of time – e.g., Halting problem.
AI system passes
cannot tell which one
is the machine
(interaction via written questions)
Turing test identified key research areas in AI:
but does a machine need to act humanly
to be considered intelligent?
1960s ELIZA Joseph Weizenbaum
a friend you could never have before
Eliza: Hello. I am ELIZA. How can I help you?
You: Well I feel sad
Eliza: Do you often feel sad?
You: not very often, but it\'s becoming more common
Eliza: Please go on.
Both approaches are now distinct from AI
1960s "cognitive revolution": information-processing psychology
All men are mortal
Therefore Socrates is mortal
design best program for given machine resources
to perceive, understand, and act
speech recognition and understanding
image understanding (computer vision)
modelling the external world
problem solving, planning, and decision making
ability to deal with unexpected problems, uncertainties
We want systems that adapt to us!
formalizing the laws of human thought
the start of the field of AI (1959)
later in the course…
It is not my aim to surprise or shock you – but the simplest way I can summarize is to say that there are now in the world machines that think, that learn and that create. Moreover their ability to do these things is going to increase rapidly until – in the visible future – the range of problems that they can handle will be coextensive with the range to which human mind has been applied.
“the vodka is good but the meat is rotten”
Neural network research almost disappears
End of 80’s – limitations of expert systems became clear, even though they have been quite successful in certain domains.
building flexible and scalable AI
systemsin the Open World
Robbin’s Algebras are all boolean
A mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for 60 years!
The Robbins problem was to determine whether one particular set of rules is powerful enough to capture all of the laws of Boolean algebra. One way to state the Robbins problem in mathematical terms is:
Can the equation not(not(P))=P be derived from the following three equations?
 P or Q = Q or P,
 (P or Q) or R = P or (Q or R),
 not(not(P or Q) or not(P or not(Q))) = P.
First creative mathematical
proof by computer:
unlike brute-force based proofs
such as the 4-color theorem.
[An Argonne lab program] has come up with a major mathematical
proof that would have been called creative if a human had thought of it.
New York Times, December, 1996
Deep Blue beats the World Chess Champion
I could feel human-level intelligence across the room
-Gary Kasparov, World Chess Champion (human…)
IBM Stock price skyrocketed
on the day Deep Blue beat Kasparov
Game 1: 5/3/97: Kasparov wins
Game 2: 5/4/97:Deep Blue wins
Game 3: 5/6/97:Draw
Game 4: 5/7/97:Draw
Game 5: 5/10/97: Draw
Game 6: 5/11/97:Deep Blue wins
“I felt a new kind of
Intelligence” ( across
the board from him)
The value of IBM’s stock
Increased by $18 Billion!
One of the most famous modern computers,
Deep Blue, which defeated Gary Kasparov at chess.
For two days in May, 1999, an AI Program called Remote Agent
autonomouslyran Deep Space 1 (some 60,000,000 miles from earth)
It\'s one small step in the history of space flight. But it was one giant leap for computer-kind, with a state of the art artificial intelligence system
being given primary command of a spacecraft. Known as Remote Agent,
the software operated NASA\'s Deep Space 1 spacecraft and its futuristic ion engine during two experiments that started on Monday, May 17, 1999.
For two days Remote Agent ran on the on-board computer of Deep Space 1,
more than 60,000,000 miles (96,500,000 kilometers) from Earth.
The tests were a step toward robotic explorers of the 21st century that are
less costly, more capable and more independent from ground control.
Michael Littman et a. 99
First user of system
October 9, 2005
Stanley and the Stanford RacingTeam
were awarded 2 million dollars for being the
first team to complete the 132 mile
DARPA Grand Challenge course (Mojave Desert).
Stanley finished in just under 6 hours 54 minutes
and averaged over 19 miles per hours on the course.
The DARPA Urban Challenge is being held at the former George Air Force Base.
The old base buildings are abandoned now and the Marines use the area to train for
Advancement of AI
Introduce the theoretical and computational techniques that serve as a foundation for the study of artificial intelligence (AI).
Reading: Chapter 1 Russell & Norvig